stress & experimental analysis of simple and advanced pelton wheel

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we have checked newly develop design known as hooped runner or advanced pelton wheel in which there are two hoops which supports the bucket from back side and giving it to rest on it. The new design is based on redistribution of the function of different parts of pelton wheel.

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STRESS & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL A PROJECT REPORT IN 1. Mr. MITHAIWALA CHIRAG 64913 2. Mr. PATEL DHAVAL 64916 3. Mr. GAJERA CHINTAN 64920 4. Mr. VALA KULDIP 5481 GUIDED BY CO-GUIDED BY Mr. SAMIP P. SHAH Mr. GAURANG C. CHAUDHARI LECTURER, (M.E.D.) LECTURER, (M.E.D.) C. K. PITHAWALLA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY SURAT

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INTRODUCTION LITARATURE REVIEW OBJECTIVE OF PRESENT WORK DIMENSIONAL DETAIL OF PELTON WHEEL MODELING OF PELTON WHEEL STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL MANUFACTURING OF HOOP PELTON WHEEL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS FUTURE SCOPE CONCLUSIONS OVERVIEW OF PROJECT

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION The Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine that only converts kinetic energy of the flow into mechanical energy. The pelton wheel is a tangential flow impulse turbine. In advanced pelton wheel in which there are two hoops which supports the bucket from back side and giving it to rest on it. In conventional runner the jet of water is directly strike to splitter of the bucket and transfers the force to it than buckets convert it into momentum by which the shaft is rotate and giving us power. Pelton turbine is used for high heads and is named after L.A. Pelton, an American Engineer. The main parts of the Pelton turbine are 1. Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement (spear), 2. Runner and buckets, 3. Casing. 4. Breaking jet.

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Simple pelton wheel Straight flow nozzle

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Simple pelton wheel Advanced pelton wheel Vs comparison of simple and advanced pelton wheel conventional pelton wheel with the runner having bucket on periphery. bucket act as cantilever beam. In the flow analysis resist by bucket’s inner surface. stresses produce in bucket is high due to the cantilever structure. Assembly is light due to having single plate as a runner. It has a hoop runner made of two plates as a hoop which cover the bucket an also act as a runner. In this runner bucket act as a simply supported beam which have its one end hinged. Flow is resists by bucket surface and also by the slot which consist the bucket. In bucket stress is lesser than the simple pelton wheel due to simply supported structure. Assembly is heavier due to having two additional hoops.

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LITERATURE REVIEW J. Vesely, M. Varner Turbine housing modifications and Pelton runner dimensions They upgrade the turbine from 62.5 MW to 68.2 MW increasing power by 9% and efficiency by 1.4%

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Heinz-Bernd Matthias, Josef Prost and Christian Rossegger Effect of the casing on unit discharge, efficiency and efficiency behavior factor The casing has great influence to the operation of a Pelton turbine and so it is very important to include the casing as an important factor in all investigations.

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T. Staubli and H.P. Hauser Jet needle tip and nozzle seat ring modifications for jet quality improvement Quality of a jet of a pelton turbine has major impact on the overall efficiency of the turbine. They modify jet needle tip angle and nozzle seat ring to achieve higher efficiency

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Jet diameters in the observation area of nozzle 1 measured from the images at three observation angles

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Maryse Francois, Pierre and Yves Lowys Tangential displacement from FEA on 3D model

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Bernard Michel, Georges Rossi, Pierre Leroy, Pierre and Yves Lowys Buckets fixed on the hoops Due to the modification at internal and external fillets of slot they achieve better optimization

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Comparison of efficiency between a traditional runner and a modified hooped runner Hydraulic efficiency of traditional runner and hooped runner with no adaptation of the hoops.

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Dr.S.A.Channiwala & Mr.Gaurang C. Chaudhari Displacement of Traditional Runner of Pelton Wheel The achievement of new hooped runner design is based on the redistribution of functions between the buckets and the hoops. This allows stresses to be minimized and distributed more efficiently.

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Equivalent Stress (Double Hoop)

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objective OBJECTIVE OF PRESENT WORK 1. To construct a pelton wheel from obtained data. 2. Carry out the stress analysis of simple and advanced pelton wheel using ANSYS workbench v11. 3. To perform the practical on simple and advanced pelton wheel and obtain results like efficiency and characteristic curves. 4. To make the comparative assessment the simple and advanced pelton wheel with respect of stresses developed and overall efficiency.

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DIMENSIONAL DETAIL OF PELTON WHEEL Construction of pelton runner blade The dimension of bucket is decided by these empirical relations Length L = 2.3 to 2.8 times d 1, where d 1 = diameter of jet Width B = 2.8 to 3.2 times d 1 Depth T = 0.6 to 0.9 times d 1 Inlet Angle β 1 ∼5 to 8 Outlet Angle β 2 ∼10 to 20 at centre

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Bucket used in this project

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MODELING OF PELTON WHEEL Pro/Engineer in the industry

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Modules in Pro/ENGINEER foundation

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Model of bucket created in Pro/Engineer

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STRESS ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AND ADVANCED PELTON WHEEL Constrains given to pelton wheel

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Displacement of Traditional pelton wheel

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Stress developed in the Traditional pelton wheel

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Tangential Displacement of the advanced pelton wheel

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Equivalent Stresses developed in the advanced pelton wheel

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BUCKET CASTING SPECIFICATION Material --- Pig iron cast iron (scrap) +silicon Furnace-----Oil fired furnace Temp----1200 c Capacity—100 kg/lot. MACHINING PROCESS Grinding process-------------Amery wheel-Carbon drum 8 inch diameter Drilling process--------------Speed 360 rpm Electro plating process---- Chromium Front and back view of Bucket used in this model MANUFACTURING OF HOOP PELTON WHEEL

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manufacturing of runner & hoop

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Hooped pelton wheel after balancing

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Test rig used for experiment Hooped runner mounted on shaft

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Stress and Displacement result of a simple and advanced pelton wheel using ANSYS Workbench v11 We have done stress analysis of simple and advanced pelton wheel with the help of ANSYS Workbench v11 and also done the practical for effect of hoop on efficiency. We have done analysis at different speed ranging from 100 rpm to 680 rpm and also for different flow rate ranging from 0.0033 m 3 /sec to 0.01 m 3 /sec. Also by applying force from different direction like single, two, four and six nozzle. And we get wide rage of stress developed in pelton wheel & Displacement at the tip of bucket.

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Max eq. Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec (simple pelton wheel)

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Min eq. stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec (simple pelton wheel)

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Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec (simple pelton wheel)

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Max Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec (Advance pelton wheel)

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Min Stress v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec (Advance pelton wheel)

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Max displacement v/s Speed at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec (Advance pelton wheel)

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SR NO. Speed (rpm) Force (N) Stress % reduction in max stress Deformation % reduction in deformation (Simple) (Advanced) (Simple) (Advanced) Max (MPa) Min (MPa)10 -06 Max (MPa) Min (MPa)10 -06 Max (mm) Max (mm) Single nozzle 1 100 269 16.92 6.38 9.5538 6.29 43.53 15.36 1.5132 90.14 2 200 269 16.97 3.05 9.556 2.57 43.68 15.42 1.5164 90.16 3 300 269 17.05 8.08 9.56 2.79 43.92 15.51 1.5216 90.18 4 400 269 17.17 1.53 9.566 5.30 44.28 15.65 1.529 90.23 5 500 269 17.31 2.33 9.574 8.81 44.69 15.82 1.5385 90.27 6 600 269 17.5 3.32 9.583 1.60 45.24 16.03 1.5503 90.32 7 680 269 17.66 4.25 9.59 2.33 45.69 16.23 1.5614 90.37 Comparison of stress developed in simple and advanced pelton wheel

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Unit discharge (Qu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec By experimental data we get important parameters of pelton wheel like as speed, torque, output power and efficiency Experimental results of Simple and Advanced Pelton wheel

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Unit power (Pu) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec

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Efficiency ( η ) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.01 m 3 /sec

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Efficiency ( η ) v/s Unit speed (Nu) at Q = 0.0066 m 3 /sec and 40 % opening

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Sr. No. Speed ( rpm ) % diff Speed Torque ( N m ) % diff Torque Power (output) ( watt ) % diff Power (output) Efficiency ( η ) % diff Efficiency Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva. Simple Adva. 100 % opening 25 1305 1110 -17.57 1.12 1.02 -9.90 153.11 118.59 -29.11 5.32 4.12 -29.11 26 1281 1088 -17.74 2.41 2.35 -2.60 323.27 268.24 -20.51 11.24 9.32 -20.51 27 1247 1037 -20.25 5.00 4.70 -6.44 652.92 511.34 -27.69 22.69 17.77 -27.69 27 1240 1030 -20.39 5.47 6.12 10.68 709.43 660.26 -7.45 24.66 22.95 -7.45 29 1187 1002 -18.46 7.40 7.29 -1.51 919.36 765.84 -20.05 31.96 26.61 -20.05 30 1137 977 -16.38 9.34 8.47 -10.25 1111.25 867.17 -28.15 38.63 30.14 -28.15

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The overall percentage stress reduction for simple and advanced pelton wheel are in the range of 40% to 75%. Percentage displacement reduction for simple and advanced pelton wheel are in the range of 75% to 92%. The experiment carried out on advanced pelton wheel which gives characteristic curves which shows that the influence of hoop on overall efficiency of pelton turbine is very less. The difference in efficiency between simple and advanced pelton wheel is from 3.25% to 45.06 % CONCLUSIONS

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FUTURE SCOPE The analysis carried out in this project is just one step towards optimization. There is large scope of work in this subject. Hoop optimization can be done by parametric study of hoop in which by varying the thickness of hoop it can be achieved. The fatigue analysis of pelton wheel can be done. By conducting experiment Life cycle prediction of pelton wheel is also possible.

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REFERENCES [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelton_wheel. [2] Dr. R.K.Bansal, “ Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machine ” , Published By Laxmi Publication(p) Ltd.Eighth edition 2002. [3] Alexandre Perrig, “ Hydrodynamics of the free surface flow in pelton turbine buckets ” , Lausanne, Epfl,2007. [4] J. Vesely and M. Varner, “ A Case Study of Upgrading of 62.5MW Pelton Turbine ” , CKD Blansko Stroj í rny a.s., Czech Republic. [5] Heinz-Bernd Matthias, Josef Prost and Christian Rossegger, “ Investigation of the Flow in Pelton Turbines and the Influence of the Casing ” , Austria, 11 April 1997. [6] T. Staubli and H.P. Hauser, “ Flow visualization - a diagnosis tool for pelton turbines ” , Switzerland , 2004. [7] Mayse Francois, Pierre Yves Lowys and Gerard Vuillerod, “ Developments and Recent Projects for Hooped Pelton Turbine ” . ALSTOM Power, Turkey, 4-7 November 2002. [8] Bernard Michel, Georges Rossi, Pierre Leroy and Pierre Yves Lowys, “ Hooped Pelton Runner ” , ALSTOM Power. [9] Dr.S.A.Channiwala and Mr.Gaurang C. Chaudhari, “ Analysis, design and flow simulation of advanced pelton wheel ” , SVNIT, Surat, June 2008 [10] Dr. Jagdish Lal, “ Hydraulic Machines ” , published by Metropolitan Book Co. Privet Ltd. Sixth Edition 1975. Chapter-4, 5, 9. [11] CADD Center, “ Introduction to Pro/Engineer ” [12] Etienne Parkinson, “ Developments in numerical flow simulation applied to Pelton turbines ” , VA Tech Hydro Ltd., Switzerland, Summer 2003. [13] Hydroplan UK and Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon Ltd., “ Low Cost Pelton Turbine Design and Testing ” , 2003. [14] John S. Anagnostopoulos and Dimitrios E. Papantonis, “ Flow Modeling and Runner Design Optimization in Turgo Water Turbines ” , Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, volume 22, July 2007. [15] Yodchai Tiaple and Udomkiat Nontakaew, “ The Development of Bulb Turbine for Low Head Storage Using CFD Simulation ” , Thailand [16] Reiner Mack, “ Comet supports the design of Pelton turbines ” , Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation GmbH & Co., KG, Heidenheim Germany

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