PPL 10 A Long Exile for Judah

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PPL 10: A Long Exile for Judah : 

PPL 10: A Long Exile for Judah Jeremiah 24-29

Structure of the Unit : 

Structure of the Unit Defined by a double inclusio: identical temporal clauses at 24:1 and 29:2, and the rotten fig motif (24:8-10; 29:17). Two cycles of judgment moving from Jerusalem to all nations (24-25; 26:1 – 27:11) Distinguishing true prophets from false prophets in Jerusalem (27:12 – 28:17) Distinguishing true prophets from false prophets in exile (29:1-29)

Fresh and Rotten Figs : 

Fresh and Rotten Figs 2nd half of book begins with vision as did the first half. The six verbs describing Jeremiah’s ministry recur but with a different emphasis. Chapter 24 marks a turning point in the book. Jer 24 is NOT a conclusion (contra Bright, Boadt, Carroll, Rofé, Jones, Park-Taylor). Jerome and Mowinckel both recognized its structural significance.

Fresh and Rotten Figs : 

Fresh and Rotten Figs 24:1-3 = vision report proper Two baskets of figs = first fruit offerings (Deut 26:1-11). The terms “good” and “bad” refer to the respective fates of the two groups rather than their character. 24:4-7 = explanation part 1: fate of good figs 24:7 anticipates the new covenant oracle of Jer 31 24:8-10 = explanation part 2: fate of bad figs Ironic twist: Jerusalem becomes place of ruin and Babylon place of preservation

Egyptian Migration : 

Egyptian Migration 24:8 mentions the Jews living in Egypt. Pharaoh Neco deported Jehoahaz and probably others in 609 BCE. Others probably fled in 604 BCE (cf. 2 Kgs 24:1). Returning to Egypt symbolizes apostasy and completion of curses (cf. Num 14:3-23; Deut 17:16; 28:68).

Devoted to Destruction : 

Devoted to Destruction Jer 25 repeats themes encountered earlier. Two important advances occur. 25:9 “I will devote them to destruction” is a reference to Herem warfare (cf. Deut 7:1-2) 25:11 offers the first explicit mention of 70 years. Here it is Babylon’s tenure as a world power (Lundbom). In postexilic times the 70 yrs is associated with the exile (from destruction of 1st temple in 586 to dedication of 2nd in 516). Related to Sabbatical system (cf. Jer 17:21-27)

LXX vs. MT Placement of OAN : 

LXX vs. MT Placement of OAN At 25:13a, the LXX inserts the OAN “I will bring upon that land all the words that I have uttered against it, everything written in this book, ” OAN in LXX = 25:14 – 31:44 OAN in MT = Jer 46 – 51 In LXX the phrase “in this book” triggers a scroll of judgment against the nations. Janzen argues placement is based on analogy with Isa and Ezek. LXX likely preserves original order. MT subsequently relocated OAN to end of book. Alexander Rofé offers alternative theory that the phrase “in this book” in MT points backward.

Cup of the Wine of Wrath : 

Cup of the Wine of Wrath 25:14 begins another vision account A cup filled with wine is passed among the nations beginning with Judah. Scene is a banquet, perhaps a sacrificial meal with an unexpected twist (picture at Ras Shamra) Nations are judged with Judah for offering false hope. YHWH is removing every other support

Temple Sermon Revisited : 

Temple Sermon Revisited Jer 26 corresponds to Jer 7 but from a different point of view. These two prose accounts gave rise to the “two prose source” theory of Giesebrecht and Mowinckel Jer 7 = first person account Jer 26 = third person account Jer 7 focuses on content of preaching Jer 26 focuses on response of people and king Jer 26 justifies the harsh judgment prescribed in Jer 7

Temple Sermon Revisited : 

Temple Sermon Revisited 26:1-6 provides a summary of the sermon 26:7-19 narrates a trial that ensued determining whether Jeremiah deserved the death sentence. On the basis of historical precedents the princes, people, and priests find Jeremiah innocent. 26:20-24 is an appendix illustrating two important points Regardless of the trial’s results, Jehoiakim will seek Jeremiah’s life as he did Uriah’s Jeremiah contrasted with Uriah in terms of courage and standing his ground (cf. Jer 1:17). Never turn to Egypt for refuge.

Prophetic Contests : 

Prophetic Contests The MT of 27:1 sets the date of the symbolic act during Jehoiakim’s reign. LXX lacks a date and some Hebrew mss, Peshitta and Arabic versions have “Zedekiah.” The events fit better in Zedekiah’s reign. It is probably best to omit date with LXX. Most modern English versions correct to “Zedekiah.” 27:3 Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, Sidon are singled out because they are conspiring with Judah to rebel against Babylon.

Prophetic Contests : 

Prophetic Contests Jeremiah warns not to listen to the optomistic “peace prophets” Survival comes only through submission to Babylon. 27:1-11 addressed to neighboring nations 27:12-15 addressed to Zedekiah 27:16-22 addressed to priest and people concerning the vessels of the temple. Nebuchadnezzar looted the temple in 597 BC but left a few items. These were taken in 586 BC.

Prophetic Contests : 

Prophetic Contests Jer 28 - Jeremiah is challenged by Hananiah 28:1-4 Hananiah’s false oracle 28:5-9 Jeremiah applies the test of Deut 18 28:10-11 Hananiah engages in his own symbolic act. 28:12-14 Jeremiah returns with an oracle and perhaps with an iron yoke on his neck. 28:15-17 Jeremiah successfully predicts Hananiah’s death thus passing the Deut 18 test.

A Letter to the Exiles : 

A Letter to the Exiles Welfare of Babylon (vv. 4-9) Welfare of Jerusalem (vv. 10-14) Judgment on Jerusalem (vv. 15-20) Judgment on Babylon (vv. 20-23) The ironic command to “pray for the welfare of your city” parodies Psalm 122:1-9). Note the irony of the command to “build” and “plant” The command to increase and prosper sounds like the creation mandate (Gen 1:28) and recalls Israel’s experience in Egypt (Exod 1)

An Oracle of Doom Against Shemaiah : 

An Oracle of Doom Against Shemaiah Shemaiah sent a letter to Zephaniah requesting that he imprison Jeremiah Passhur had done this but is probably now in captivity (20:6). Zephaniah is understandably more cautious. Shemaiah’s descendant will not participate in Judah’s future glory.

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