Water Resources

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Water Resources:

Water Resources By:- Keval Shah


Contents Water resources Water :-some facts and figures Surface water Oceans Ice and Snow Groundwater Lakes Rivers and Streams Types of Water Uses Off-Stream uses In-Stream Uses Fresh Water Shortage Water Use Problems Increase Water Supply Multipurpose Water Resources and Management Tips on How to Save Water Conclusion

Water Resources:

Water Resources Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. The majority of human uses require fresh water.

Water: Some facts and figures:

Water: Some facts and figures 6.5 per cent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans and only 2.5 per cent as freshwater. India receives nearly 4 per cent of the global precipitation and ranks 133 in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum. The total renewable water resources of India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum. By 2025, it is predicted that large parts of India will join countries or regions having absolute water scarcity.

Surface Water:

Surface Water Surface water is water in a river, lake or fresh water wetland. Surface water is naturally replenished by precipitation and naturally lost through discharge to the oceans, evaporation, transpiration.


Oceans Oceans Is the largest area and volume of water. Contain more than 97% of the earth’s water. Contain an average of 35g salt per liter. Can be used after being desalinated.

Ice and Snow:

Ice and Snow Ice and Snow Contain almost 90% of freshwater. Is as much as 2km thick. Situate mostly in Antarctica (85%), Greenland (10%), and other snow mountain (5%).


Groundwater Groundwater is water in the rock and soil layer beneath Earth’s surface. Absorb excess runoff rain and snow on ground. Return to lakes, streams, rivers and/or marshes. Is readily available for use and drinking.


Lakes Lakes are created from variety of geological events: Tectonic-basin lake Volcanic lake Glacial lake Groundwater-discharge lake Lakes generate water from: Collection of water in low areas Natural or man-made dam(s) Rivers and streams Groundwater

Lakes (cont.):

Lakes (cont.) Freshwater lakes Contribute 91,000km 3 (about 0.007% of total Earth’s water). Provide water for agricultural irrigation, industrial processes, municipal uses and residential water supplies. Major freshwater lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), Baikal Lake (Russia), Tanganyika Lake (Eastern Africa), Lake Superior (U.S), and Malawi Lake (Eastern Africa )

Lakes (cont.):

Lakes (cont.) Saline lakes Possess 85,000km 3 (about 0.006% of total Earth’s water). Saline lakes’ water cannot be used due to high salinity. Major saline lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), The Great Salt Lake (U.S.), The Dead Sea (between Jordan & Israel), and Aral Sea (between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan).

Rivers and Streams:

Rivers and Streams Rivers and streams are bodies of flowing surface water driven by gravity. Rivers and Streams contain only 2,120km 3 (about 0.6% of liquid fresh water surface and around 0.0002% of the Earth’s water).

Wetlands and Soil Moisture:

Wetlands and Soil Moisture Wetlands and Soil Moisture Wetland are areas of land where water covers the surface for at least part of the year. They are not as important as lakes and rivers for water storage . However, they play vital roles in: Erosion protection Flood reduction Groundwater replenishment Trapping nutrient and sediment Water purification Providing fish and wildlife habitat

Types of Water Uses:

Types of Water Uses Off-Stream Uses:- Industrial Mining Domestic Commercial In-Stream Uses:- Hydropower Recreation Navigation Ecosystem Support

Off-Stream Uses:

Off-Stream Uses


Industrial Industrial Industries need water to cool down their machinery to a temperature that allows the manufacturing process to keep going. Water is also needed to clean machinery, products, and buildings.


Mining Water is used for the extraction of minerals that can be in forms of: Solid: coal, iron, gold, sand – etc. Liquid: crude oil. Gas: natural gases.


Domestic Domestic water use is the consumption for household purposes – both indoor and outdoor. In Cambodia, domestic water use was around 136 million m 3 (17% of total consumption). Only people in Phnom Penh can access to piped water. 85% of piped water was consumed.


Commercial Commercial Water is used in businesses such as hotels, restaurants, marketplaces, and so on. In Phnom Penh, commercial use was 14% of total piped water consumption (about 11,480 m 3 per day).

In-Stream Uses:

In-Stream Uses


Hydropower Hydropower is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. hydropower has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes, domestic lifts, power houses and paint making.


Recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun "


Navigation The process of directing the movements of watercraft from one point to another. The process, always present in some form when a vessel is under way and not drifting, varies with the type of craft, its mission, and its area of operation.

Fresh water shortage:

Fresh water shortage Fresh Water Shortage is due to: Population growth Lack of access to clean water Groundwater is being depleted Climate change / global warming Rivers and lakes are shrinking

Water Use Problems:

Water Use Problems Water Overuse Overuse in agriculture Overuse in residence Overuse in community Some interesting facts: Water needed to produce our daily food: 40 liters to produce 1 slice of white bread. 70 liters to produce 1 apple. 1,300 liters to produce 1kg of wheat. 3,400 liters to produce 1kg of rice. 3,900 liters to produce 1kg of chicken meat. 15,500 liters to produce 1kg of beef.

Increase Water Supply:

Increase Water Supply Water Conservation Reclamation of sewage water Development of groundwater Desalinization Developing salt-resistant crops Developing drought-resistant crops Rainmaking Long distance water transport Improve integration of water use

Multipurpose water resource management:

Multipurpose water resource management Integrated water resource management Flood-damage reduction Irrigation and water supply Navigation Recreation Environmental protection & improvement Water Management Engineering Reservoir construction Levee construction Dredging Stream drainage channelization

Tips on how to save water:

Tips on how to save water Increasing water resources start from all of us! Don’t flush every time you use the toilet. Take shorter showers Don’t wash your car so often. Don’t let the faucet run while washing hands, dishes, food, or brushing your teeth. Don’t run the dishwasher when half full. Dispose of used motor oil, household hazardous waste, batteries, etc., responsibly.

Tips on how to save water:

Tips on how to save water Don’t dump anything down a storm sewer that you wouldn’t want to drink. Avoid using toxic or hazardous chemicals for simple cleaning or plumbing jobs. If you have a lawn, use water sparingly. Water your grass and garden at night, not in the middle of the day. Use water-conserving appliances: low-flow showers, low-flush toilets, and aerated faucets. Use recycled (gray) water for lawns, house plants, car washing. Check your toilet for leaks.


Conclusion Water resources is EVERYONE’s concern! The consumption has been increased significantly due to population growth. Water availability is decreasing due to human overuse and natural degradation. Many sources of water have become unusable. Allegedly control over water lead to intraboundary and transboundary conflicts. Effective water resource management and policy must be implemented on both local and international levels.

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