7-7. Human Population and Its Impacts

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Chapter 7 Semester 2 Grade 7

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HUMAN POPULATION and ITS IMPACTS:

HUMAN POPULATION and ITS IMPACTS

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The world population is increasing every year. This increase in population is followed by the increase of needs. Uncontrol population growth can cause problems in the avaibility of resources needed by people. In addition, it wil also increase environmental damage. Therefore, some effort to control the population growth should be put into action in order to minimize the problems that may occur.

A. Popupation of Inhabitants:

A. Popupation of Inhabitants The change in the population in an area over a period of time is called population dynamics . A population dynamics showing an increasing number of inhabitants is called population growth . A rapid population growth which exceeds the avaibility of natural resources is called population explotion or overpopulation . If the population grwth cannot be controlled, it is estimated that overpopulation will occur.

B. Population Dynamics:

B. Population Dynamics Population dynamics is affected by three following factors ; Birth rate (Natality) Death rate (Mortality) Number of population movements (Migration)

1. Natality:

1. Natality The number of birth affects population growth. The level of birth is defined as an index called natality or birth rate. Natality is the number of childbirths for every 1000 people per year.

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The criteria of natality are as follows : Natality is considered high when the birth rate is >30 Nataity is considered moderate when the rate birth rate is between 20 – 30 Natality is considered low when the birth rate is < 20

2. Mortality:

2. Mortality The death rate or mortality is the number of deaths for every 1,000 people per year. The death rate is correlated with the conditions of a country, for example, with the levels of prosperity, health, or the occurence of war. In a rich and developed country, the inhabitants may well maintain their health, so that the death rate is low.

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The criteria of the mortality are as follows : Mortality is considered high if the death eate is > 18 Mortality is considered moderate if the death rate is between 14 – 18 Mortality is considered low if the death rate is < 14

3. Migration:

3. Migration Migration is the movement of inhabitants from one place to another and it is normally affected by the change of conditions. Migration is influenced by the following factors : Difficult economic situations and low earnings in the home location. b. Sociocultural situations in the origin location, for instance, due to forced marriages, or very tight traditional practices in cultural environments.

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c.Educational facilities in the origin location are not sufficient. d.Working opportunities in the destination area are more abundant. e.More opportunities to get a better education and career in the area of destination. f.There is an assumption that living in big cities is more interesting because of the avaibility of recreational facilities, amusement, and shopping centers.

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Migration can be placed into five categories : Emigration , which is the movement of the inhabitants leaving a country to settle in another country. Immigration , which is the movement of inhabitants entering a new country to settle permanently. Transmigration , which is the movement of inhabitants from a densely populated area into an area with a lesser population. Urbanization , which is the movement of inhabitants from villages to cities. Remigration , which is the movement of inhabitants back to their home country.

C. The Density of Human Population:

C. The Density of Human Population The density of human population is the number of the population occupying a certain area over a unit of time.

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The densities of human populations in various areas are not the same and is always changing. It is caused by population dynamics which include birth, death and migration. It may also be caused by an uneven spread of population in certain regions.

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The densest region in Indonesia is in Java island which is approximately 127,499 square kilometers in area and had a population of approximately 121.3 million people in the year 2000. That means that the population density was 951 people/km 2 . In the year 2010, the popuation of Java island increased to 136.6 million people. That means, the population density of Jave island in 2010 became 1,071 people/km 2 .

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Uneven density and the spread of population can cause a development gap, both in physical and non-physical development. Physical development includes, the construction of buildings, houses, roads, bridges, and amusement parks. Non-physical development includes developments related to the improvement of the quality of living, including mental and spiritual. Some examples are public services, education facilities, healthcare facilities, religious facilities, and cultural centers.

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Another issue which is related to the uneven population spread is the difference between the population density in villages and in the cities. Cities have a denser population compared to villages because cities are more appealing and there are more job opportunities.

D. Issues Related to Population Density:

D. Issues Related to Population Density Welfare Good levels of population welfare are indicated by good healthcare and nutrient sufficiency, sufficient education, and decent housing. Efforts that are being done by the government to improve the welfare of Indonesians are as follow ;

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a.