The Roaring Life of the 1920s : The Roaring Life of the 1920s Chapter 13 Rural and Urban Differences : Rural and Urban Differences The New Urban Scene
New York- 5.6 million
Small town world of close ties, hard work, and strict moral values vs. the big city world of anonymous crowds, moneymakers, and pleasure seekers Rural and Urban Differences : Rural and Urban Differences Prohibition- the 18th Amendment
Most support for prohibition came from the rural South and West, areas with large populations of native born Protestants Rural and Urban Differences : Rural and Urban Differences Speakeasies- hidden saloons and nightclubs where liquor was sold illegally
Bootleggers- smuggled liquor from Canada, Cuba, and the West Indies Rural and Urban Differences : Rural and Urban Differences Organized Crime
Al Capone- (Chicago) a gangster whose bootlegging empire netted over $60 million a year. He took control of the liquor business by killing off his competitors Rural and Urban Differences : Rural and Urban Differences 18th amendment- January 1920
20th amendment- repealed the 18th in 1933 Science and Religion Clash : Science and Religion Clash Fundamentalism- a protestant movement grounded in a literal, or nonsymbolic, interpretation of the Bible.
They rejected the theory of evolution and believed in the creation of Adam and Eve. Science and Religion Clash : Science and Religion Clash The Scopes Trial
Occurred in Dayton, Tennessee
John T. Scopes, a 24-year old Biology teacher was arrested and brought to trial.
His lawyer was Clarence Darrow. William Jennings Bryan was the prosecutor.
The Scopes Trial was a fight over evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools.
Scopes was found guilty and had to pay a $100 fine. Young Women Change the Rules : Young Women Change the Rules The Flapper- an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and the new fashions and urban attitudes of the day.
Clothes- close fitting felt hats; bright, waist less dresses an inch above the knee; skin-toned stockings, sleek pumps; strings of beads, and bracelets. They cut their hair into bobs and wore rouge lipstick. Young Women Change the Rules : Young Women Change the Rules Young women became more assertive- began smoking cigarettes, and drinking in public; they danced the fox trot, camel walk, tango and lindy hop
Began viewing marriage as an equal partnership; casual dating became more acceptable.
Double Standard- a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom, to men than to women. Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work : Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work Women’s Professions- teaching and nursing, librarians, social workers. The number of woman bankers, lawyers, police officers, and probation officers rose. Big business demanded clerical workers. Women also worked as clerks in stores. Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work : Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work The changing family
Birthrate was dropping
Stores had ready made clothes, sliced bread, and canned foods.
Children went to school and agencies helped take care of elderly parents.
Marriages were based on personal choices of the two people compared to the choice of their parents. The divorce rate doubled.
Many women remained housewives, because of they worked others would say their husbands had failed as the breadwinners. Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture : Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture Schools
The modern high school emerged during this period expanding education.
Expanding news coverage
Newspaper circulation rose and mass circulation magazines became popular
Radio comes to age
Allowed the sharing national news as it happened
Soap Operas, Amos’ n Andy, The Shadow (detective show)
Products advertised had an advantage. America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams : America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams Babe Ruth- New York Yankee baseball player America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams : America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams Gertrude Ederle- 1926 first woman to swim the English Channel America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams : America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams Charles Lindbergh- made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic in the Spirit of St. Louis America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams : America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams Movies/Charlie Chaplin starred in many silent movies
Steamboat Willie- first movie starring a talking cartoon character named Mickey Mouse. America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams : America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams Sinclair Lewis-first American to win a Nobel Prize in Literature. America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams : America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams Scott Fitzgerald- known as the spokesman of the “Jazz Age” America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams : America Chases New Heroes & Old Dreams Ernest Hemingway- the best known expatriate author African-American Voices in the 1920s : African-American Voices in the 1920s Great Migration- escape racial violence and economic discrimination Slide 22: Marcus Garvey- a Jamaican immigrant who believed that African-Americans should build a separate society. He founded, in Jamaica, a black nationalist group called the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). Two years later moves to New York. The Harlem Renaissance : The Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance
Writers expressed a new pride in the African-American experience, they explored and celebrated their African heritage, wrote with defiance about the trial of being black in a white world. The Harlem Renaissance : The Harlem Renaissance Langston Hughes- best known poet; poems described the everyday lives of working class African-Americans. The Harlem Renaissance : The Harlem Renaissance Zora Neale Hurston- most accomplished African-American woman writer of the era The Harlem Renaissance : The Harlem Renaissance Louis Armstrong- trumpet player whose talent rocketed him to stardom in the jazz world. The Harlem Renaissance : The Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance represented a portion of the great social and cultural changes that swept America in the 1920’s. The period was characterized by economic prosperity, new ideas, changing values, and personal freedom as well as important developments in art, literature, and music.