Plastic pollution

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

AN ASSIGNMENT ON PLASTIC POLLUTION:

AN ASSIGNMENT ON PLASTIC POLLUTION TO DR H.B. PATEL DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY FROM AJAY S. PATEL

Plastic:

Plastic Plastics are mostly derived from petroleum, a process called "polymerization.“ subspecies of a polymers. These are composed of large molecules , formed by joining many smaller molecules ( monomers) of hydrocarbon.

Plastic Properties :

Plastic Properties ability to be shaped to almost any form. stiff and hard or flexible, soft. light weight, low cost, replaced metals and glass. used cars, bullet-proof vests, toys, hospital equipment, and food containers. More than a hundred billion pounds of plastic were produced in 2000.

Types of plastics:

Types of plastics Thermoplastics :- soften and melt if enough heat is applied, e.g. polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride and polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE). Thermosetting polymers :- thermosets can melt and take shape once; after they have solidified, they stay solid E.g. Bakelite , malachite

Plastic Types:

Plastic Types Starch based plastics Polylactic acid (PLA) plastics Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) Polyamide 11 (PA 11) Bio-derived polyethylen Genetically modified bioplastics

Starch based plastics :

Starch based plastics Consist of 50 percent of the bioplastics market able to absorb humidity Thus used in drug capsule Flexibiliser and plasticizer such as sorbitol and glycerin are added so starch can also be processed thermo-plastically.

Polylactic acid (PLA) plastics :

Polylactic acid (PLA) plastics Transparent plastic produced from cane sugar or glucose used in the plastic processing industry for the production of foil, tins,moulds, cups, bottles and other packaging

Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB):

Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a polyester produced by certain bacteria processing glucose or starch. similar to the petroplastic produces transparent film at a melting point higher than 130 degrees Celsius is biodegradable without residue .

Polyamide 11 (PA 11) :

Polyamide 11 (PA 11) a biopolymer derived from natural oil . is not biodegradable. emissions of greenhouse gases and consumption of non-renewable resources are reduced during its production. thermal resistance So ,use in automotive fuel lines, pneumatic airbrake tubing, electrical cable anti-termite sheathing, flexible oil & gas pipes, control fluid umbilical, sports shoes, electronic device components, and catheters.

Bio-derived polyethylen:

Bio-derived polyethylen monomer - ethylene. identical to traditional polyethylene - not biodegrades but can be recycled. It can also considerably reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In Future-planned uses-to produce bottles and tubs, also to make linear low density films production.

Genetically modified bioplastics :

Genetically modified bioplastics Genetic modification (GM) is also a challenge for the bioplastics industry. require the use of GM crops.

Synthesis :

Synthesis The noxious substances emitted during the production of plastic are Ethylene oxide, Benzene and Xylenes . These chemicals can cause many defect ranging from birth defects to cancer effect on : The nervous system The immune system The blood and the kidneys.

Slide 13:

Once plastic is produced, the harm is done once and for all. It is non biodegradable, it require 1000 years for decomposition. Disposal of plastic through any kind of attempt are :- Recycling Burning or Landfilling .

Slide 14:

Recycling Associated with skin and respiratory problems, due to toxic fumes, especially hydrocarbons and residues released during the process. Burned releases a host of poisonous chemicals into the air, Carbon dioxide(CO 2 )the most toxic substance is also produced.

Slide 15:

Landfills : This is also dangerous. toxic seepage from the landfill, contamination of precious water sources, Interfer in the flow of ground water obstructs the movement of roots thereby badly affecting the soils biological balance and organic processes. E.g. polyethlin bags , diff. plastic things etc..

Effect on animals:

Effect on animals Marine debrise human-created waste, floating in the sea. Accumulate at the centre of gyres and coastlines, frequently washing aground where it is known as beach litter. Eighty percent of all known marine debris is plastic PLASTIC Don't biodegrade as many other substances do; while they will photodegadable on exposure to the sun, they do so only under dry conditions, as water inhibits this process. Dangers to wildlife and fisheries. Aquatic life can be threatened through Entanglement, Suffocation, and Ingestion

Slide 18:

10,000 animals kill from eatings of plastic bags e.g. dolphins, Turtals , Wheals, penguius , etc …. After death it lies around in the landscope where another victim may ingest it.

Plastic Debris EFFECT:

Plastic Debris EFFECT Some plastic additives are known to disrupt the endocrine system Sex steroids :- estrogens and androgens, also thyroid hormone When consumed, others can suppress the immune system Decrease reproductive rates. Accumulate in GIT . Plastic clogs their intestines and leads to slow starvation.

EFFECT ON HUMANS :

EFFECT ON HUMANS Cancer growth Recycling: skin , respiratory effect , reproductive harms ,etc… Also effect on : Planktons (animals &plants) Phytonplanktons(tiny photo synthetic organism) Zooplanktons

Effect on environment:

Effect on environment Air pollution :burning emits toxic fumes having many harmfull gases like CO 2 …. Soil pollution : When plastic materials was landfill, it was mixed with soil particals and from there go in to different food chains of animals

Plastic bags :

Plastic bags Every year, around 500 billion (500,000,000,000) plastic bags are used worldwide. Over one million bags are being used every minute. Plastic bags are difficult and costly to recycle and take around 300 years to photo degrade. They break down into tiny toxic particles that contaminate the soil and waterways and enter the food chain.

Slide 23:

They clogged gutters and drains become the breeding grounds of germs and bacteria that cause diseases Animals and sea creatures are hurt and killed every day by discarded plastic bags. Plastic clogs their intestines and leads to slow starvation. Hundreds of cows die in alone every year when they choke on plastic bags while trying to eat vegetable waste stuffed in the garbage.

PLASTIC – Indian scenario:

PLASTIC – Indian scenario The cheap bags contain chemicals such as cadmium- or lead- based chemicals that are harmful to health . They leach into vegetables, meat and food. An estimated 15 lakh computers and 30 lakh mobile phones are disposed of every year in India . lead, brominated flame retardants and chromium which can cause cancer, Another problem: India has more to deal with than just the waste generated at home. The Environment Protection Authority of Britain recently said 23,000 tonnes of waste was dumped in India, China and Pakistan. India- among world’s highest plastics consumers

PLASTIC PROBLEM!!!:

PLASTIC PROBLEM!!!

WHAT IS MEASuReS?:

WHAT IS MEASuReS ? Reduce - to buy less and use less. Reuse - elements of the discarded item are used again. Includes the terms Repair, Regift, and Upcycle. Recycle - discards are separated into materials that may be incorporated into new products. Generate - capturing useful material for waste to energy programs. Incineration - high temperature destruction of material. Differs from Gasification; Differs from burning and emissions are controlled .

Symbols of Recycalic Plastic:

Symbols of Recycalic Plastic

DEGRADABLE PLASTIC:

DEGRADABLE PLASTIC Biodegradable bags are bags made from materials that are able to decompose under specified conditions. exposure to sun, moisture free and oxygen are needed: Degradation is slow in landfills. Discarded plastics are hard to eliminate from the environment because they do not degrade and have been designed to last a long time

Biodegradable items:

Biodegradable items

Slide 30:

Recyclic plastic NO USE PLASTIC

Oxo-biodegradable (OBD) plastic :

Oxo -biodegradable (OBD) plastic It is plastic to which has been added very small (catalytic) amounts of metal salts. As long as the plastic has access to oxygen these additives catalyze the natural degradation process to speed it up.

HARMFULL PLASTIC PRODUCTS:

HARMFULL PLASTIC PRODUCTS Plastic bags Toys Eletrics items Furniture Sheets Buckets Sanitary wears Stationary items Bottles

Slide 33:

THANK A LOTS …

authorStream Live Help