Black Quarter

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Submitted To :- Dr.H.C . Chauhan Astt . professor Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology Presented by :- Showkat Masoodi Roll no :- 46 Reg. no.: 02-0178-06, An assignment on black quarters

Black Quarter:

Synonyms; Quarter ill Black leg Symptomatic Anthrax It is an acute infectious but not contagious disease of cattle, goat & sheep. The disease is characterized by development of gangrenous and emphysematous myositis &crepitation in heavy muscle like glute al muscl e . Black Quarter

Etiology:

Etiology Clostridium chauvoei is the etiologic agent of blackleg. The bacteria is a Gram-positive, anaerobic rod-shaped bacillus most commonly found in the soil and intestinal tract of cattle, sheep, and other ruminants. The bacteria can exist in a vegetative state or as a spore Spores are elongated , oval, subterminal or terminal

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Susceptible hosts Cattle Sheep Buffalo Goat Deer

Mode of Transmission:

Mode of Transmission The disease spread from contaminated soil Ingestion of contaminated food In sheep bacteria enter through shearing,docking,lambing,castration INCUBATION PERIOD : 1 TO 5 DAYS

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PATHOGENESIS The spores that are ingested may be carried by macrophages of intestines may be distributed to muscles mainly thigh and shoulder . When the muscles become devitalised by trauma or fatigue spores become activated

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Growing organisms liberates toxins which directly cause necrosis of muscles Organisms may invade the blood circulation and set up metastatic lesions of gas oedema and necrosis of liver ,lung,heart,kidney and spleen .

Pathogenicity:

Pathogenicity Produce 4 types of toxins Alpha toxin (phospholipase c) Beta toxin (DNAse) Gamma toxin (hyaluronidase) Delta toxin (haemolysin )

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Ante mortem findings High fever (41°C) Lameness Loss of appetite Discoloured, dry or cracked skin Crepitating swellings often on the hips and shoulder which are hot & painful.

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In sheep gaseous crepitation cannot be felt before death The skin over the skin is greenish or blue like gangrene Foamy discharge oozes from nostrils

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Loss of appetite Cracked skin

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Crepitating swellings often on the shoulder

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LESIONS WHERE THE SWELLING SKIN IS DARK LESION CUT FOUL SMELLING FLUID MAY EXUDE THE AFFECTED MUSCLES HAS A POROUS APPEARANCE DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF GAS

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Muscle necrosis and hemorrhages

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THE BLACK COLOUR IS DUE TO FORMATION OF IRON SULPHIDE A PRODUCT OF H 2 S AND Fe FROM THE BLOOD AND MUSCLES. FRIBINO HEMORRHAGIC PERICARDITIS AND ENDOCARDITIS INTERLOBULER EDEMA KIDNEY ,LIVER AND SPLEEN MAY SHOW DEGENERATIVE CHANGES AND YELLOW NECROTIC FOCI CONTAINING GAS

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Postmortem findings Bloating of carcass and blood stained frothy exudates from the nostrils and anus Dark red to black muscle of the loin, back or leg. Sponge like bubbly appearance of the muscles with a peculiar rancid odour Yellowish, gelatinous subcutaneous tissue and associated gas bubbles Blood stained fluid in body cavities

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Dark-red skeletal muscle of a heifer showing haemorrhage, necrosis, edema and emphys ema

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MICROSCOPICALLY MUSCLE FIBERS REVEAL WAXY DEGENRATION AND COAGULATION NECROSIS FIBERS ALSO SHOW CLOUDY SWELLING NUMEROUS BACTERIA SEEN DEATH DUE TO TOXEMIA

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DIAGNOSIS BY SMEAR EXAMINATION BIOLOGICAL TEST FLUROSCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE

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C ontrol The young animals should be kept out of affected area. Dead body should be burnt or buried. Calf and sheep should not be allowed to graze in endemic pasture. All the animals of endemic zones should be vaccinated.

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VACCINE Black quarter vaccine ( polyvalent ) Dose : cattle & buffalo -5 ml sheep & goat – 2-3ml Black quarter vaccine Dose : cattle & buffalo- 2.5ml Combined H.S. & B.Q. vaccine Dose : cattle & buffalo – 5ml .

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THANK YOU

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