logging in or signing up Equine Strangles kdnclc Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 583 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: June 05, 2011 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: AN ASSIGNMENT ON STRANGLES (VLD – 511) SUBMITTED TO: DR . H.C. Chauhan ( Astt . Professor). DEPT. OF MICROBIOLOGY] SUBMITTED BY: Sandeep kumar ROLL NO.- 44 REGN. NO .- 02-0176-06EQUINE STRANGLES: EQUINE STRANGLES (Equine Distemper)Slide 3: Strangles is a highly contagious and debilitating equine disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus equi. Strangles is an important disease worldwide because it is highly contagious (meaning it can spread quickly through horse populations).Slide 4: Strangles is also known as “strep throat” of horses and characterised by sore throat, abcesses of lymph nodes, off feed, and fever. The disease: Usually affects young horses Highly contagious – high morbidity. Mortality is usually lowSlide 5: Streptococcus equi – Gram’s staining of pus smear Stangles: Stangles Agent: Streptococcus equi Gram + & Capsulated bacterium Jordanus Ruffus first reported in 1251 World wide disease of horses, donkeys and mules Normally has a 1-3 week incubation period after the initial infection. Symptoms milder in older horsesSlide 7: Characteristics – Gram + - Cocci - Grow in chains or in pairs - Non-motile - Non-spore forming Facultative anaerobic Β - haemolytic - Lancefield group – C (classified according to the structure of the C carbohydrate in their respective cell walls (“lancefield antigen”) as well as their respective hemolytic abilities)Slide 8: Epidemiology Strangles is very contagious, especially with foals, spreading easily from horse to horse and often leading to large outbreaks with many horses affected. It is spread in the discharges (pus) from the nose and burst abscesses. Objects such as water troughs, feed buckets, brushes, reins and other equipment, if contaminated with infected pus, can also spread the disease. Recovered horses can spread the disease for up to eight months, even though they can appear clinically healthy and normal.Slide 9: Transmission & susceptibility : The disease is spread when the nasal discharge or material from the draining abscess contaminates pastures, barns, feed troughs, etc. Equines of any age may contract the disease, although younger and elderly equines are more susceptible. Young equines lack immunity because they have not had prior exposure. Elderly equines have a weaker immune system.Slide 10: Incubation Period : The incubation period is typically 3 - 12 days and the disease normally runs its course in 2 - 4 weeks. Affected animals should be isolated from unexposed equine for prolonged periods. Convalescing equine can become chronic carriers.Strangles Pathology: Strangles Pathology Severe upper Respiratory disease with abscesses in the lymph nodes Disseminated disease where internal lymph nodes get infected and rupture (bastard strangles) Guttural pouch empyema Pupura hemorrhagicaStrangles Symptoms: Strangles Symptoms Mucopurulent nasal discharge (a greenish, yellow, or white “snotty” discharge), Hold neck and head outstretched Difficulty swallowing Swollen throat and lymph nodes Chronic weight loss Discolored Swollen limbs Temporary Laryngeal paralysis( hemiplegia ) -- Roarer — Anorexia Fever up to 106º FStangles Diagnosis/Symptoms: Stangles Diagnosis/Symptoms Mucopurulant nasal dischargeSlide 14: Swollen lymph glands that may burst Pus discharge from nostrilsSlide 15: Strangles (Distemper). Hot painful abscesses of the lymph nodes of the throat.Slide 16: Swollen lymph nodes, a common clinical sign of strangles, usually burst and drain infectious thick, yellow pus.Slide 17: A horse with abcess under his throat from stranglesSlide 18: Complications Bastard Strangles. This condition is invariably fatal. Purpura Haemorrhagica . Characterised by red spots on skin and mucous membranes (such as the gums) caused by bleeding from the small blood vessels under the skin, along with swelling ( oedema ) of the limbs and around the head. It occurs sporadically and is more common in younger animals. It is often fatal.Slide 19: 3. Chronic Carrier Status. A low number of horses can harbour the bacteria within their guttural pouches (part of the Eustachian tubes) often in the form of chondroids (balls of dried pus) become chronic carriers of the disease. Carrier status may be diagnosed by taking sequential nasopharyngeal swabs although this can be unreliable as these horses often only shed the bacteria during times of stress.Guttural Pouch Equine: Guttural Pouch EquineSlide 21: Postmortem findings : Abscesses in the internal organs including the liver, spleen, lungs etc. Abscesses on the pleura and peritoneum Abscesses in the mesenteric lymph nodes “ Bastard strangles ” or metastatic strangles - chronic form , denotes multiple abscessation in the vital organs and generalized systemic infection.Strangles Diagnosis: Strangles Diagnosis Clinical signs & Symptoms Culture of purulent discharge and isolation of Strep Equi PCR (DNA) for carrier stateSlide 23: Differential diagnosis : Epizootic lymphangitis , Ulcerative lymphangitis , Dourine, Melioidosis , Equine viral rhinopneumonitis , Equine influenza and Equine viral enteritisTreatment Strangles: Treatment Strangles Antibiotics: Penicillin Abscess Treatment: Guttural pouch flushing: Isolation with Supportative careStrangles Prevention: Strangles Prevention Diagnosis and Treatment . This should be done as soon as possible, since treatment in the early stages will greatly reduce the severity and duration of the illness. Vaccinations - Two strangles vaccines are available: a subunit M-protein-based vaccine for intramuscular use and a modified live bacterial vaccine for intranasal administration. Isolation of new horses (1 months quarantine) Inform other Horse Owners.Slide 26: Zoonotic Risk : Zoonotic transmission has been reported, but is uncommon. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid exposure to Strangles.Slide 27: Thanks You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.