Role of Biomaterial in enhancement of biological systems

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Role of biomaterials in enhancement of biological systems Presented By:-:

Role of biomaterials in enhancement of biological systems Presented By:- Muhammad Hashim Raza Muhammad Bahader Sher Hafiz Irfan shabbir Kayani Zeeshan Ahmad Shamas Pervaiz Mehak Nimra Presented To Sir Naeem Asghar CMLT, National Institute of Health Islamabad Pakistan ( kayani.irfan@gmail.com )

Introduction to Biomaterial:

Introduction to Biomaterial A biomaterial is any matter, surface, or construct that interacts with biological systems. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine , biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and material science .

Role of biomaterials in enhancement of biological systems:

Role of biomaterials in enhancement of biological systems One of the primary reasons that biomaterials are used is to physically replace hard or soft tissues that have become damaged or destroyed through some pathological process. Although the tissues and structures of the body perform for an extended period of time in most people, they do suffer from a variety of destructive processes, including fracture, infection, and cancer that cause pain, disfigurement, or loss of function. Under these circumstances, it may be possible to remove the diseased tissue and replace it with some suitable synthetic material.

Importance/Application:

Importance/Application How biomaterials are used to enhance biological systems Orthopedics Total hip replacement Knee implants Cardio vascular Cardiac pace maker Ophthalmic Dental implants for tooth fixation

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Wound healing Drug delivery systems Skin repair devices (artificial tissue) Cochlear replacements Breast implants

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Biomaterials must be compatible with the body, and there are often issues of biocompatibility which must be resolved before a product can be placed on the market and used in a clinical setting. Because of this, biomaterials are usually subjected to the same requirements of those undergone by new drug therapies.

Heart Valves:

Heart Valves In the United States, 45% of the 250,000 valve replacement procedures performed annually involve a mechanical valve implant. The most widely used valve is a bileaflet disc heart valve. The mechanics involve two semicircular discs moving back and forth, with both allowing the flow of blood as well as the ability to form a seal against backflow. The valve is coated with pyrolytic carbon, and secured to the surrounding tissue with a mesh of woven fabric called Dacron .

Replacement of heart valve:

Replacement of heart valve

Cardiac pacemakers:

Cardiac pacemakers Cardiac pacemakers are generally used to manage a slow or irregular heart rate. The pacemaker system applies precisely timed electrical signals to induce heart muscle contraction and cause the heart to beat in a manner very similar to a naturally occurring heart rhythm. A pacemaker consists of a pulse generator, at least one electrode, and one or two pacing leads connecting the pacemaker to the heart.

Skin Repair:

Skin Repair Most of the time "artificial" tissue is grown from the patients own cells. However, when the damage is so extreme that it is impossible to use the patient's own cells, artificial tissue cells are grown.

Example of skin repair:

Example of skin repair

Ophthalmic:

Ophthalmic Contact lenses A contact lens , or simply contact , is a lens placed on the eye. They are considered medical devices and can be worn to correct vision, for cosmetic or therapeutic reasons.

A contact lens:

A contact lens

Dental implantation:

Dental implantation Within the mouth, both the tooth and supporting gum tissues can be readily destroyed by bacterially controlled diseases. Dental caries (cavities), the demineralization and dissolution of teeth associated with the metabolic activity in plaque (a film of mucus that traps bacteria on the surface of the teeth), can cause extensive tooth loss. Teeth in their entirety and segments of teeth both can be replaced and restored by a variety of materials.

Example of a single teeth implantation:

Example of a single teeth implantation

Orthopedics:

Orthopedics Total Joint Replacement:- Total joint replacement is widely regarded as the major achievement in orthopedic surgery in the 20th century. Arthroplasty or the creation of a new joint is the name given to the surgical treatment of degenerate joints aimed at the relief of pain and the restoration of movement. This has been achieved by excision, interposition, and replacement arthroplasty and by techniques that have been developed over approximately 180 years.

Total joint replacement:

Total joint replacement

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