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Welcome to seminar : 

Welcome to seminar

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To reduce the contamination with microorganisms and obtain good quality of product General process –raw material are examined, the equipment contacting the food is adequately cleaned, sanitized, preservining & packing process at last storage. Energy process is checked and supervised constantly by the workers or microbiologist. Ingredients:- First the raw product is inspected & tested for quality, it does not involves bacteriological laboratory testing in all instances. Some ingredients such as sweeting agents may contain microorganisms to a maximal allowable content . Numbers of bacteria in ingredients up to bacterial standards.

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Excess mould mycelium present on the raw fruits indicates rotten, may lead to condemnation of the canned or frozen product. Large number of bacteria on vegetable or in fruits may indicate they carry over frozen product.Thermoduric bacteria in raw milk may yield a pasteurized milk that will not met the bacterial standards by the standard plate count method. Microorganisms to grow in food processing and handling EX:-theromophile which does not grow or decrease there capacity in forewarmers and blanchers and increase in total number of bacteria in vegetables or products between the blanching and freezing

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Packaging materials are a possible source of contamination of foods with micro organisms, the penetrability of non-metallic materials to moisture and to gases is of more significance in the preservation of foods than the microbiology of these materials. Wrappers may be treated or impregnated with bacteriostatic or fungistatic compounds EX-cheese wraps with sorbic or caprylic acid. Paper and paper board used for milk cartons contain mostly bacili, cocci and occasionally rods, actinomycetes and mold spores. Wax paper is practically sterilised when produced and almost all plastic packing materials. These packing materials should be protected from microorganisms and dust when packing. According to federal regulations a food is deemed to be adulterd “if its container is composed in whole or in part, of poisionous or deterious substance which render its content injurious to health”

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Equipment may be an important source of contamination of food with microorganisms unless it is not cleaned and sanitized properly. CLEANING:- Equipment may be disassembled for cleaning & sanitizing although this is difficult some pieces. Chemical agents –detergents:- these agents may improve the wetting ability of cleaning solution, defloculate and disperse suspended material. Along with detergents mixtures the alkaline varieties such as lye, soda ash, sodium metasilicate, trisodium phosphate and polyphosphates- same time detergents should be non-corrisive. Wetting agents-wetting agents may be anionic such as hydrocarbon sulfonates; non-ionic EX:-polyether alcohol. High pressure cleaning eliminates many problems assosiated with land scrubbing. EQUIPMENT

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SANITIZING:- The sanitizing process is an attempt to reduce the number of microorganisms on the equipment surfaces. Sanitizing agents in common are hot water,halogens (chlorine and iodine and halogens derivatives,flowing stream,and quaternary ammonium compounds. Steam under pressure is the most effective way of aplying heat as a sanitizing agent. Steam jets,flowing stream,or hot water may be used . All microorganisms and there spores can be killed by adequate treatment with high pressure steam. Chlorine,iodine,and their compounds(hypochlorites, chloranium, iodophors ) are effective germicides. Usually bacterial spores are resistant to these sanitizers. Chlorine is used to destroy undesirable bacteria in water for drinking, for use in foods,for washing foods or equipment , and for cooling. Chlorine(chlorination)(50to100ppm) also is used to treat contaminated or polluted waterline.

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Quaternary ammonium compounds are more effective against gram positive than gram negative bacteria. These have residual effect- Detergent sanitizers-combination of both alkaline detergent and quaternary ammonium compound. These used to clean and sanitize utensils or equipment in operation. CLEANED IN PLACE (CIP) EX- in dairy industry they leave pipelines permanently connected and cleaned and sanitize them in place. Different sequences of treatments are used in CIP system. Milk pipelines-for example a rinsed first with tepid water, which is pushed or pulled through the system. Then hot(71c) detergent solution may be passed through followed by rinsing water and finally a sanitizing agent, such as hot water(77c or over) chlorine solution 200(ppm)or a quaternary compound (200ppm) often a sanitizing treatment is given immediately before use.

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PRESERVATION;- In laboratory-might run keeping –quality tests on canned foods and bacterial counts on frozen foods, pausteurised milk,dry milk— TRADE;- Perishable foods has increased interesr in sanitation and indispensed foods. “readily perishable foods”are defined as those consisting in whole or in part of milk,milk products,eggs,meat,fish,poultry etc- these foods can support rapid growth of microorganisms and cause infections or intoxications. Perishable foods include sandwitches, pasteuries,hot coffee,tea or chocolate,malted milk, fluid milk, icecream, frozen deserts and hot food plates (meat,stews,soup,baked beans, poultry, fish) During transportation perishable foods should be kept either cold (3.3 to 4.4c) or hot (66c or above). All parts of the vending machines in copntact with readily perishable foods, so they should cleaned and sanitized periodically.

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MANUFACTURING Good manufacturing practice(GMP):- in the department of helth, education and welfare, public health service,food and drug administration(FDA). Specify current good manufacturing practices(GMP) in the manufacturing,processing,packing or holding of humans foods. These institutions have code of federal regulations .This code would be of interest food sanitation facilites and control, sanitary operations, process and controls and personel. They are specific GMPS written for fish and sea food products; cocoa products and confectionery; bottled water; bakery foods; tree nuts and peanuts; pickled, fermented, acidified and low acid foods (proposed); and thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in sealed containers.

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INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES Food and agriculture organisation (FAO). The world health organisation (WHO) international children emergency fund. FAO is primarily concerned with food production through improved methods of production ,preserving and distribution of food. The joint FAO/WHO food standards commission is a forum for the co-operation among nations to develop or agree& on various international standards for the food industry. International microbiological criteria for foods and food industries can be found in national research council sub committee report on microbiological criteria committee on food protection, food nutrition board . (ICMSF) international commision on microbiological specifications for food. This is responsible for organising collaborative studies on sampling plans and laboratory methadology. Include-IDF(International dairy education) and Assosiation of official analytical chemists(AOAC).

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FEDERAL AGENCIES 1)the food and drug administration(FDA):- the main function of the FDA is that all foods are safe and honestly inform actively labelled. Two main programs of FDA a)compliance policy guides include specifications are given for total or aerobic count , coliforms, food borne pathogens, mycotoxins, bacterial indicators, coagulase-positice staphylococci and E.coli. B)food detect action levels deals mostly with the level of natural defects that may tolerate in particular food or commodity.

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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE(USDA) Egg and egg products, meat and poultry products and dairy products are called by USDA- (AMS-Agriculture marketing service) and food safety and inspection services(FSIS) NATIONAL MARINE FISHERY SERVICES(NMFS):- The united stats department of commerce \national marine fishery service will cover the fishes, fishery products and inspection of their program. Occupational safety & health administration (OSHA) Environmental protection agency (EPA) Federal trade commission(FTC) STATE AGENCIES State food laws usually are enforced through a state department of public health,agriculture or sanitary engineering some states have microbiological standards or guidelines for food.

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COMMERCIAL AGENCIES National food processors association has set microbial standards for regulation with in every industries microbial standards for sugar and starch for canning. American dry milk institute establish bacteriological standards for dru milk and American bottlers of carbonated beverages has bacteriological standards for sweeting agents used in soft drinks. PROFESSIONAL AGENCIES The american public health association has published methods for bacteriological and microbiological examination of foods; International association of milk; food and Environment sanitarins has also published recommended procedures for the investigation of food borne illness

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HACCP Hazard analysis involves the identification of ingredients and products which effect on food safety, might be consumed by infants or elders;they does not have no history of implication as source of pathogens when sensitivity of ingredients is known, various critical points can identify. HACCP concept mainly involves three steps;-1)education and training 2)inspection of processing facilities , food handling operations 3)microbiological surveys and testing. The HACCP concept was advanced in 1971 by H.E BAUMAN and other scientists at pillsbury company in collaboration with national aeronautics and space administration (NASA).and us army research laboratories. First applied to low-acid canned foods, then HACCP concept has been applied through out the food industry to a large variety of products and to food service industry.

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Most detailed report about HACCP was published by the International commission on microbiological specifications for foods(ICMSF). HACCP mainly used in the meat and poultry inspection, sea foods, production of meat and poultry products ,refrigerated foods, it is used in Canada to control salmonellosis. HACCP principles:- 1)assess hazards and risks. 2)determine the ccp to control & identify hazards. 3)establish critical limits. 4)establish procedures to monitor ccps. 5)establish effective record keeping to document the HACCP plan. 6)establish procedure for verification that the HACCP system is working correctly.

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LIMITATIONS OF HACCP HACCP requires the education of non-professional food handlers especially in food service industry . The failure of these individuals to get a proper understanding of HACCP could lead to its failure. To be effective , this concept must be accepted not only by food processors but by food inspectors and the public. The adoption of HACCP by industry has the potencial of giving false assurance to consumers that a product is safe and therefore there is no need to exercise the usual precaution between the purchase and consumption of a product. Consumers need to be informed that most outbreaks of food borne illness are caused by errorse in food handling in human and food service establishment

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Duties of the sanitarians that effect the health of employees include provision of potable drinking water. Some duties are personal hygiene, regulation of sanitary facilities with in the plant and of sewage treatment and disposal and suspension of sanitation in plant. These duties involves the sanitary aspects of a plant and housing construction, selection of qualified person to direct operations of the facilities and training employees in in sanitary practices. Sanitation in eating places in the plant deserves special attention ,special places should be designated for eating carried lunches,and such places should be kept neat and sanitary. If employees get food from cafeteria or restaurant, the sanitarian should be responsible for the preparation,handling,serving, and storage of food to avoid spread of infections microorganisms & food poisoning. Prevention the food intoxications and food infections, food equipment and utensils should be handled, washed and sanitized.

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DRINKING WATER The water that the employees drink must meet public health standards when tested by methods recommended of water waste water(American public health association,1985) Coliforms bacteria must not be present at levels indicating contamination of water by plate count of the water sometimes are made to indicate trouble may be incipient. WASTE TREATMENT Solid and concentrated wastes are kept separate from the watery wastes and used directly for food,feed,fertilizer, there may be concentrated dried or fermented. Ex:-pean-vine silage. Precautions should be taken, for south liquid or solid food to avoid introduction into the watery wastes of drip, leakage, overflow, spillage, large residues in containers, foam, frozen on food and food dust during the handling and processing of the food.

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Sewage of the human origin is kept separate from plant waters possible –presence of human intestinal pathogens can cause destruction. These sewage is turned to municipal system. Wastes from the plants contain a variety of organic compounds which are simple and readily oxidizable, and difficult to decompose. The strength of the sewage or food waste containing organic matter is expressed in terms of bio-chemical oxygen demand(BOD) Normal amount of oxygen present in the natural waters,such as streams ponds or lakes such as 7to8 ppm. Here free oxygen normally present in the waters and oxidation process carried out by aerobic or facultative microorganisms. When the oxygen drops to 3ppm, fishes either dies or leave the water. Anaerobic conditions has been attained , hydrolysis,putrefaction and fermentation following the microorganisms,with this result the water can be seen like malodorous and cloudy.

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CHEMICAL TREATMENT A chemical or a mixture of chemicals is added to the sewage or waste which forms flocculent precipitate. In settling these flocculent particles settle down to the bottom including bacteria. These effluent is run into a body of water, on to soil or into a biological treatment system. Chemicals commonly used –aluminum or iron salts, alum or ferrous sulfate, plus lime. Giving a flocculent precipitate of aluminum or ferric hydroxide.

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BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT Biological methods for waste disposal or treatment they are (1)dilution-by running waste waters into a large body of water. (2) irrigation –waste waters are sprayed onto fields (3)lagooning- running waste waters into shallow artificial ponds (4)trickling filters-made of crushed rock,coke,filter tile (5)activated-sludge method-waste water is inoculated heavily with sludge and add to aerated tanks, (6) anaerobic tanks – settling , hydrolysis,putrefaction, fermentation followed by some aerobic treatment.

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current status of food technlogies in India

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NUTRITION FOUNDATION IN INDIA (NFI):- This is located at New Delhi, which supports of the government of India and the co_operation of the United states department of agriculture (USDA). CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL REASEARCH INSTITUTE (CFTRI):- It is located in Mysore (Bangaluru) Opened in 21 October 1950 CFTRI Mysore is one of the 40 national reaserch laboratories set up under the council of scientific and Industrial reasearch (CSIR) India. COUNCIL OPF SCIENTIFIC AND Industrial reasearch (CSIR) founded in 26 September 1942

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REFERENCES Food microbiology-WILLIAM C. FRAZIER DENISS C. WESTHOFF Modern food microbiology-JAMES MAY GOOGLE image results.

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