# scaling

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## Presentation Transcript

### Measurement and Scaling :

Measurement and Scaling

### Measurement and Scaling :

Measurement and Scaling Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain pre-specified rules. One-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the characteristics being measured. The rules for assigning numbers should be standardized and applied uniformly. Rules must not change over objects or time.

### Measurement and Scaling :

Measurement and Scaling Scaling involves creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located.

### PRIMARY Scales OF Measurement :

PRIMARY Scales OF Measurement Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Interval Scale Ratio Scale

### A Classification of Scaling Techniques :

A Classification of Scaling Techniques

### A Comparison of Scaling Techniques :

A Comparison of Scaling Techniques Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus objects. Comparative scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties.   In noncomparative scales, each object is scaled independently of the others in the stimulus set. The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled.

### Relative Advantages of Comparative Scales :

Relative Advantages of Comparative Scales Small differences between stimulus objects can be detected. Same known reference points for all respondents. Easily understood and can be applied. Involve fewer theoretical assumptions. Tend to reduce halo or carryover effects from one judgment to another.

### Relative Disadvantages of Comparative Scales :

Relative Disadvantages of Comparative Scales Ordinal nature of the data Inability to generalize beyond the stimulus objects scaled.

### Comparative Scaling Techniques :

Comparative Scaling Techniques Paired Comparison Scaling Rank Order Constant Sum Q Sort

### Non comparative Scaling :

Non comparative Scaling

### Continuous Rating Scale :

Continuous Rating Scale Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably.   How would you rate Pantaloons as a retail store? Version 1 Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Probably the best   Version 2 Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --Probably the best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100   Version 3 Very bad Neither good Very good nor bad Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---Probably the best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

### Itemized Rating Scales :

Itemized Rating Scales The respondents are provided with a scale that has a number or brief description associated with each category. The categories are ordered in terms of scale position, and the respondents are required to select the specified category that best describes the object being rated.

### Likert Scale :

Likert Scale The Likert scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects.   Strongly Disagree Neither Agree Strongly disagree agree nor agree disagree   1. Big Bazaar sells high quality merchandise. 1 2X 3 4 5   2. Big bazaar has poor in-store service. 1 2X 3 4 5   3. I like to shop at Big Bazaar. 1 2 3X 4 5

### Semantic Differential Scale :

Semantic Differential Scale The semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. Big Bazaar is: Powerful --:--:--:--:-X-:--:--: Weak Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable Modern --:--:--:--:--:--:-X-: Old-fashioned

### A Semantic Differential Scale for Measuring Self- Concepts, Person Concepts, and Product Concepts :

A Semantic Differential Scale for Measuring Self- Concepts, Person Concepts, and Product Concepts 1) Rugged :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Delicate 2) Excitable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Calm 3) Uncomfortable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Comfortable 4) Dominating :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Submissive 5) Thrifty :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Indulgent 6) Pleasant :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unpleasant

### Stapel Scale :

Stapel Scale The Stapel scale is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered from -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero). This scale is usually presented vertically.   SEARS   +5 +5 +4 +4 +3 +3 +2 +2X +1 +1 HIGH QUALITY POOR SERVICE -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -4X -4 -5 -5 The data obtained by using a Stapel scale can be analyzed in the same way as semantic differential data.