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Comprehension skills help the reader predict the next word, phrase, or sentence quickly enough to speed recognition. Fluency skills help the readers see larger segments, phrases, and groups of words as wholes. Critical reading skills help the reader see the relationship of ideas and use these in reading with meaning and fluency. Slide 4: Word attack skills are the ability to convert graphic symbols into intelligible language. Reading skills come from the following: Seeing language as made up of units of sound and units of meaning Seeing print as letters symbolizing sounds, words, and discourse units of language such as sentences, paragraphs, and quotations Slide 5: Here are some examples of word attack skills: Seeing the component parts of words blending these parts into new words Recognizing syllable patterns Recognizing symbols for consonant sounds Recognizing symbols for vowel sounds Recognizing symbols for tone and other suprasegmental features Recognizing capital letters (upper case) and knowing when to use them Recognizing punctuation and how it affects reading for meaning and expression Slide 6: Reading requires understanding, or comprehending, the meaning of print. Readers must develop certain skills that will help them comprehend what they read and use this as an aid to reading. Comprehension skills are the ability to use context and prior knowledge to aid reading and to make sense of what one reads and hears Comprehension is based on: knowledge that reading makes sense readers' prior knowledge Information presented in the text, and the use of context to assist recognition of words and meaning. Slide 7: Here are some examples of reading comprehension skills: Understanding that print conveys meaning Using context as an aid to reading Using prior knowledge as an aid to reading Using predictability as an aid to reading Slide 8: Fluency Skills should be the aim of every reading and writing lesson. It should increase as learners progress from beginning to advanced readers and writers. Fluency enables learners to read and write with more understanding. They gain this skill through practice and observation Fluency skills are the ability to see larger segment and phrases as wholes as an aid to reading and writing more quickly. Slide 9: Here are some examples of fluency skills: Immediately recognizing letters and frequent clusters of letters. Learning frequent words by sight Seeing phrases as wholes Using prediction skills within the phrase or clause Slide 10: As readers make sense of what they read, they use various relationships of ideas to aid recognition and fluency. Critical reading as a goal includes the ability to evaluate ideas socially or politically. Critical reading skills are the ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize what one reads. They are the ability to see relationships of ideas and use them as an aid in reading Slide 11: Here are some examples of critical reading skills: Seeing questions and expecting answers Seeing cause and effect Seeing steps in a process Seeing comparisons Seeing generalization and itemization Slide 12: Thank You!! You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.