Activated carbon

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Activated carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 1 Activated carbon Presented by KATIYAR BIPIN SARVESH

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 2 Activated Carbon History of Activated Carbon: First described used over 3500 years ago for medicinal purposes ( 1550 B.C. in an ancient Egyptian papyrus and later by Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder) In the 18th century, crude carbons made from blood, wood and animals were used for the purification of liquids.

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 3 Activated Carbon History of Activated Carbon: In the 19 th century, crude AC made from bone char (powder) was used to de-colorize sugar (mostly calcium phosphate with only a small % of carbon). Early 20 th century, processes were developed to steam activated powdered char for taste and odor removal in water.

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 4 Activated Carbon History of Activated Carbon: Granular Activated Carbon with industrial level steam activation was developed as a consequence of WWI, for use in gas masks

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 5 Activated Carbon What is Activated Carbon? Activated Carbon is a crude form of graphite and generic term used to describe a family of carbonaceous adsorbents possessing a highly crystalline form and extensively developed internal pore structure.

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 6 Activated Carbon What is Activated Carbon? This unique structure of Activated Carbon produces a very large surface area: 1 lb. of Granular Activated Carbon produces a surface area of 125 acres (1 kg = 1,000,000 meters 2 ; 1000 m 2 /g)

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 7 Activated Carbon Activated Carbon can be produced from a wide variety of carbonaceous raw materials including: Bituminous Coal Coconut Shells Wood Lignite Coal Peat, Olive Pits, etc.

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 8 Activated Carbon The choice of raw material has a large influence on the characteristics and performance of the AC, each producing an AC with differing surface areas, total pore volume, pore radius and pore volume distribution.

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 9 Activated Carbon Carbon Type Total Pore Volume (ml/g) Mean Pore Radius (Angstroms) Surface Area ( m 2 /g) Coconut Shell 0.5 – 0.6 10 – 11 1000-1100 Peat 0.6 – 0.7 11 – 12 1000-1275 Bituminous Coal 0.6 – 0.7 12 – 14 1000-1150 Bituminous Coal 0.7 – 0.8 14 – 16 900-1050 Lignite Coal 0.9 – 1.0 29 – 32 900-1050 Peat 1.1 – 1.2 23 – 26 600-675 Wood 1.4 – 1.8 22 - 26 1200-1600

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 10 Activated Carbon Pore Structure

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 11 Activated Carbon Activation The raw materials are first carbonized via a controlled heating process at “low” temperatures (200 - 300  C) in an oxygen-lean environment which keeps the material from burning. This process converts the raw material into a disordered carbon structure full of tiny pores.

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 12 Activated Carbon Activation The carbonized materials are then activated by steam (or chemical treatment). Steam activation is carried out at high temperatures (982  C) and the carbonized materials react with the steam to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen which exit as gases leaving behind a highly porous activated carbon material.

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 13 Activated Carbon RE-Activation The adsorptive capacity of any AC is exhausted eventually. After carbon becomes used up (pore spaces filled), it can be partially reactivated w/ high temperature steam Very expensive but is done in the municipal drinking water industry

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 14 Activated Carbon AC Production

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 15 Activated Carbon The Three Types/Forms of AC Powdered Granular Pelleted / Extruded

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 16 Activated Carbon Choosing the correct type of AC: Different purification goals require different activated carbon properties. There are >150 types of carbon available

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 17 Activated Carbon Choosing the correct type of AC: “There are no valid theories that allow selection of the best activated carbon in any single case without experimentation” (Johnson et al., 1964) “It should be mentioned that the mechanisms by which activated carbon removes organic matter from water are unclear” (Spotte, 1984)

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 18 Activated Carbon What is A d sorption? Organic molecules bond to the internal pores of activated carbon

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 19 Activated Carbon What is A d sorption? Adsorbates are held on the activated carbon pore wall surface by weak electrostatic forces (van der Waal’s forces)

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 20 Activated Carbon “Adsorption is a fight against solubility” (Sigworth and Smith. 1972. Adsorption of Inorganic Compounds by Activated Carbon. JAWWA, 64(6):386-391) The more soluble a substance, the less likely it is to be adsorbed. Variables such as temperature, adsorbate concentration (lower better) and pH affect both solubility of the adsorbate and the adsorption by the activated carbon.

Activated Carbon:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 21 Activated Carbon The AC surface is non-polar which makes non-polar organic molecules most readily adsorbed. Will not adsorb salts Will not adsorb alcohols Presence of biofilms can affect adsorption

Activated Charcoal:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 22 Activated Charcoal Class: Antidote How it works: binds to poisons, toxins, irritants, increases adsorption in GI tract, inactivates toxins and binds to them until excreted in feces Indications: Poisonings Contraindications: unconsciousness, semi- consciousness, specific oral antidote for the ingested material Side Effects: Nausea, black stools, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea. Routes of Administration: Oral Dosage: 1g-2g/kg Special Considerations: Inactivates syrup of ipecac and other antidotes, poisoning of cyanide, minerals acids, alkalis

Aspirin:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 23 Aspirin Classification: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet Mechanism of Action: decreases platelet aggregation Indications: Chest pain suspected to be cardiac in nature Contraindications: Allergy, GI bleeding, bleeding disorders, peptic ulcers, asthma Side effects: GI bleeding, Special Considerations: Will cause increased bleeding and increase the effects of warfarin and other medications. pregnancy in 3 rd trimester, lactation. Routes of Administration: Oral Dosage: 324MG PO Supplied in 81mg tablets. Must call Medical direction before giving to a patient. Aspirin alone, started within 24 hours of the onset of an acute MI, reduced overall mortality to almost the same degree as thrombolytic agents

Nitroglycerine:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 24 Nitroglycerine Classification: Coronary vasodilator, antianginal How it works: dilates coronary arteries, improves blood flow through coronary vasculature. Onset: 1 minute, half-life 4 minutes Indications: chest pain suspected to be cardiac in nature Contraindications: Patient is taking cialais, levitra, viagra, revatio, sildenafil, tadalafil, danafil, gildanafil Side effects: hypotension, headache, flushing, dizziness, burning under the tongue. Route of Administration: sublingual Dose: 0.4mg every 3-4 minutes, or what medical direction tells you How supplied: 0.4mg tablets Must call medical control.

Oxygen:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 25 Oxygen Classification: naturally occurring element How it works: binds with hemoglobin, transported in the red blood cells, released in the capillary beds to body tissue. Indications: almost any patient, chest pain, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, anxiety, major trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning etc. Contraindications: none Side effects: May suppress the respiratory drive in patients with COPD Route of administration: inhalation Low Flow – 1-2 Liters per minute Patients with chronic lung disease Moderate Flow – 4-6 liters per minute Precautionary for trauma, chest pain High Flow – 10-15 liters per minute Severe respiratory distress How supplied: compressed oxygen tanks.

Oral Glucose:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 26 Oral Glucose Classification: caloric How it works: food for the brain Provides a quickly absorbed form of glucose to increase blood glucose levels Indications: acute hypoglycemia – blood glucose lower than 80 mg/dl Contraindications: hyperglycemia, decreased level of consciousness, active vomiting Special Considerations: Delirium tremens Side Effects: Hyperglycemia, short duration – pt must be given food high in carbohydrates as soon as possible Route of Administration: PO Dosage: 15-30 grams How supplied: 15 grams per tube

Thank you!:

PSIT,INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY 27 Thank you!

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