survival skills during disaster

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By: sudhanshurocksekhar (27 month(s) ago)

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Made by : K artik Xth L Survival skills

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I am very thankful to everyone who all supported me,for i have completed my project effectively and moreover on time. I am equally grateful to madam Setu she gave me moral support and guided me in different matters regarding the topic.she had been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of this project and correcting my doubts.I thank her for her overall supports. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents who helped me a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding me from time to time in making this project .despite of their busy schedules ,they gave me different ideas in making this project unique. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

intoduction:

intoduction This presentation aims at understanding the survival skills for various natural and man made hazards. It also discusses various search and rescue skills and first aid measures that can be carried out by “you” and “me” which would save many precious lives.

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The term ‘Disaster’ owes its origin to the French word ‘Desastre’ which is the combination of two terms ‘des’ meaning bad or evil and ‘astre’ meaning star . The combination expression is ‘Bad or Evil Star’. A catastrophe, sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, destruction and devastation to life and property by natural or man-made causes. disaster

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The search and rescue activities are undertaken in two manners.:- community as local rescuers :- with adquete safety measures,rescue activities are taken up immediately by the the community after any disaster. Outside community resources :-circumstances where the situation is grave and the local rescuers do not have required skills and equipments then specialists assistance from outside the community is required. Search and Rescue Saerch and rescue is technical activity rendered by an individual or a group of specially trained presonnel who rescue and attend to the causualities under adverse condition, where life is at threat.

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Team composition Honest,emotional sound,professionally decisive volunteers male and female, having good physical condition, with demonstrated capacity and willingness to work in an emergency could constitute a rescue team. What are the duties of a recuer? The first job of a rescuer is to asses the area so as to save ime, which would help in effective response. It is important for a recuer to collect information on the extent damage,approach to the damage and understand if any further damage is likely to occur. Rescue the survivors trapped under the debris, from the damaged buildings or from a cyclonic storm surgeand provide first aid services

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Plan Rescue is a team effort that needs coordination and planning amongets the members for an optimum response operation. After the assesment, the rescue team would be in a position to adequetely plan the rescue operation based on fllowing specialisations: Manpower:- Equipment Method

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Be “BRAVE” and “STAY CALM” if you have to rescue people

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PRECAUTIONS Some precautions need to be taken while rescueing a person from a building in the following situation . Before entering a building Observe the construction of the building and collapsed portion Check wheather the needs any support Be carefull for possible hazards,which may occur from weak strucures When entering the damage building use helmet Works in pair-do no move alone Listen for possible sound Keep calling Do not touch any damaged walls Treat all naked wires as live wires

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While moving inside the damaged building Do not ingnite fire. Keep close to the walls Be careful in all of your movements Do not pull anything projecting out from the collapsed portion

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Do’s for search and rescue operations Keep calm Make a thorough assesment prior to rescue Keep as near to the wall on damaged stairs as possible. Take maximum safety while removing debris from the vicinity of the casuality. Proper first aid, check and facilitated proper breathing Proper examination of casuality is must Cover the patient with a blanket and protect the casuality from furthr injury Give artificial respiration ,if required and control and control bleeding

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Don’ts for search and rescue operation Do not panic Do not start rescue work untill you are equipped with adequeteinformation Do not pull timber out of the wreckage indiscriminately.you may cause further collapse. Do not carelessly move an injured casuality unless the person is in immediate danger Do not expose to further possible injury possible or adverse conditions Do not touch live eletric wiring Do not voilete safety measures

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Equipments Personel equipments for rescuers: Helmet Torch Gum-boots Life jackets whistle Team equipments for rescuers: Rope Ladder Pulley Small cutting tools First aid Crow bar Hammer strectcher

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The encyclopedia britannica states first aid as “measure to be taken immediately after an accident not with an idea to cure but in order to prevent further harm being done”. It uses the available human and material resources at the site of accident to provide initial care to the victim of injury or sudden illness until more advance care is provided. First aid has the following main objactives:- To prevent life To prevent the victim’s condition from worsening To prevent recovery First aid

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Accidents hurt - safety doesn't

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Action plan This action plan is a vital aid to the first aider in assesing wheather the victim has any life threatning condition and if any immediate first aid is necessary . They are “DRABC” D:-check for DANGER To you To others To victims R:- check for RESPONSE Is victim conscious ? Is victim unconsicious? A :- check for AIRWAYS Is airways clear of objects? Is airways open ? B:-check for BREATHING Is chest rising and falling? Can you hear victims’s breathing? Can you feel the breath on your cheek C:-check for CIRCULATION Can you feel a pulse? Can you see any abvious sign of life?

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Fainting or losing consciousness IIf you have seen a person fainting then:- Catch the person before and see if she moves or opens her eyes Pinch the person and see if she moves or open the eyes Examine the injuries and cause of consciousness Tilt head back and keep arms at right angle to body Raise the legs 8-12 inches. This promotes blood flow to the brain Loosen any tight cloathing Keeo the victim warm if it is cold outside Keep a record of the casuality ‘s condition

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Bleeding A burns is damage to the skin caused by contact with dry heat. It may be caused by fire,flames,stream, hot liquids,hot metal,sunlight,electricity or chemicals

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By :- K artik Xth L