introduction to computer

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Session - 1Introduction to Computers : 

Session - 1Introduction to Computers 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 1

Objective : 

Objective Computer Definition Basics of software and Hardware Characteristics of computers A Look Inside the Computer 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 2

Definition : 

Definition 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 3 The Computer is an Electronic Device which converts raw data into valid or meaningful information The Computer is an Electronic Device that design in such a way, it automatically accepts and stores input data, process them and produce the desired output. Computer is an Automatic electronic apparatus for making calculation or controlling operations, that are expressible in numerical or logical terms.

Definition continued : 

Definition continued Computer is a fast operating electronic device which automatically accepts and stores input data, processes them and produces results under the direction of a detailed step by step program The Computer may be defined as an electronic device, that operates upon information or data 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 4

A Desktop Machine : 

A Desktop Machine 8/23/2011 5 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

A Computer System : 

A Computer System Hardware Software User 8/23/2011 6 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming Hardware Software User

A Computer System (Contd.) : 

A Computer System (Contd.) In general, a computer is a machine which accepts data, processes it and returns new information as output. Data Information Processing 8/23/2011 7 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

CPU ( Central Processing Unit) : 

CPU ( Central Processing Unit) The central processing unit (CPU), also known as just a "processor”, is the "brain" of your computer. It contains various electronic circuits. 8/23/2011 8 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming Hardware

CPU : 

CPU The CPU contains three main parts, all housed in a single package (Chip): Control Unit (CU) Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Memory 8/23/2011 9 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Memory : 

Memory Basic Memory unit is Bit It can store 0/1. 8 Bits – 1 Byte 1024 Bytes – 1 Kilo Byte 1024 Kilo Byte – 1 Mega Byte 1024 Mega Byte – 1 Giga Byte 1024 Giga Byte – 1 Tera Byte 1024 Tera Byte – 1 Peta Byte 1024 Peta Byte – 1 Exa Byte 1024 Exa Byte – 1 Zetta Byte 1024 Zetta Byte – 1 Yotta Byte 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 10

VDU (Monitor) : 

VDU (Monitor) This is the television-like screen where the results of a computer's tasks are displayed. Monitors come in many sizes, but most commonly they are either 15 or 17 inches (measured diagonally from one corner of the screen to the opposite corner). 8/23/2011 11 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Mouse : 

Mouse Its a device that is used to control the computer. A cable connects the mouse to the computer. When the mouse is moved on a pad, called a mouse pad, the cursor on the screen moves. A cursor is a small symbol displayed on the computer screen (normally a diagonal arrow that is used as a pointer) that shows you what the mouse is referencing on the screen. 8/23/2011 12 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Printer : 

Printer A printer is designed to output information from a computer onto a piece of paper. There are three kinds of printers: dot matrix, laser, and inkjet. 8/23/2011 13 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Scanner : 

Scanner A scanner is a device used to copy an image off paper and convert it into a digital image, which can be saved as a computer file and stored on a hard drive. Scanners can also use a special kind of technology called Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to read text from paper and save it as an editable document file 8/23/2011 14 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Software : 

Software Software is set of programs (which are step by step instructions) telling the computer how to process data. Software needs to be installed on a computer, usually from a CD. Softwares can be divided into two groups: - System SW - Application SW 8/23/2011 15 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Software … : 

Software … System Software It controls the overall operation of the system. It is stored in the computer's memory and instructs the computer to load, store, and execute an application. Examples: Operating System (OS), Translators DOS, Windows XP, Unix etc. 8/23/2011 16 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Software (Contd..) : 

Software (Contd..) Application Software They are Software written to perform specific tasks. The basic types of application software are: word processing, database, spreadsheet, desktop publishing, and communication. Examples: MSOffice, Tally, MSOutlook, 8/23/2011 17 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Slide 18: 

Inside The CPU Cabinet 8/23/2011 18 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Slide 19: 

power supply hard drive motherboard A Look Inside .. CD-ROM drive floppy drive cards 8/23/2011 19 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

A Look Inside… : 

A Look Inside… Identify all the major components: Power Supply Motherboard Memory Card Slots Cards (sound, video, network) CPU, heat sink and fan Drives (floppy, hard and CD-ROM) 8/23/2011 20 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

A Look Inside…. : 

A Look Inside…. RAM BANK CPU, Fan, Heatsink Card Slots (ISA & PCI) 8/23/2011 21 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

What these components do. : 

What these components do. Power Supply – (heart) supplies power to all the circuitry and devices. Motherboard – (body) acts as a manager for everything on the computer – connects all the other components together. CPU – Central Processing Unit – (brain) this does all the work of computing. 8/23/2011 22 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

What these components do.. : 

What these components do.. RAM – Random Access Memory – (short-term memory) holds data and program instructions that the computer is currently using. Hard Drive – (long-term memory) holds all of the information that needs to be stored between uses of the computer. Floppy and CD-ROM drives – (mouth/ears) allow you to give data to the computer and take data away from the computer. 8/23/2011 23 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

What these components do… : 

What these components do… Card Slots – (fingers) Allows other components to be added to the computer. Video card – (face) Does all of the processing necessary to get stuff looking nice on screen, quickly. Sound card – (vocal cords) Allows sounds from HD or CD-ROM to be played. Network Card – (telephone) allows computer to talk to other computers over a wire. 8/23/2011 24 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Power Supply : 

Power Supply SMPS – Switch Mode Power Supply Switching Transistors Outputs + 5V, -5V, +12 V, -12 V Usually, SMPS comes with the CPU Cabinet. 8/23/2011 25 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Motherboard : 

Motherboard 8/23/2011 26 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

CPU : 

CPU Examples: Intel Family – Pentium 4, 3, 2, XEON, Itanium AMD -- Athlon, K62 IBM -- Cyrix Motorola -- 68000 Series CU ALU Memory Registers A Single Chip 8/23/2011 27 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

RAM : 

RAM 8/23/2011 28 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Hard Drive : 

Hard Drive We won’t remove this. 8/23/2011 29 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Floppy Drive : 

Floppy Drive 8/23/2011 30 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Slide 31: 

CD-ROM Drive 8/23/2011 31 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Ribbon Cables : 

Ribbon Cables 8/23/2011 32 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Slide 33: 

Video Card 8/23/2011 33 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Slide 34: 

Sound Card 8/23/2011 34 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Back of Computer : 

Back of Computer Remove these screws 8/23/2011 35 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Slide 36: 

8/23/2011 36 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Characteristics of Computers : 

Characteristics of Computers Speed: Computers can carry out instructions in less than a millionth of a second. Accuracy : Computers can do the calculations without errors and very accurately. Diligence : Computers are capable of performing any task given to them repetitively. Reliability : computers can perform and maintain its functions in routine circumstances. 8/23/2011 37 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming

Characteristics of Computers : 

Versatility : computers can perform multiple tasks simultaneously with great ease. Storage capability: Computers can store large volume of data and information. Resource Sharing: Computers can share devices like printers and data. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 38 Characteristics of Computers

End of Session Queries??? : 

End of Session Queries??? 8/23/2011 39 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming