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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript : Department of ECE INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL FOR AMBULANCE USING MICROCONTROLLERSINTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL FOR AMBULANCE : INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL FOR AMBULANCE K.Vishwanth Kumar J.Sri Harsha Y.Vineel P.V.KarthikINTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION Normal traffic light systems operate on a timing mechanism that changes the lights after a given interval. Using intelligent traffic systems drivers will not spend unnecessary time waiting for the traffic lights to change. The 3 signals automatically falls red and green to ambulance by sending signal from ambulance to traffic light sensor system.AIM: AIM The main aim in designing the Intelligent Traffic Signal system, consists of a computer that controls the selection and timing of traffic movements using IR sensors. The main part is the detector or sensor, a device to indicate the presence of vehicles.EMBEDDED SYSTEMS : EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Embedded system is a combination of hardware and software It is also named as “Firm ware”. Embedded system is a system with in a large system. An embedded system is a computer system designed to do one or few dedicated or specific functions with real time computing constraints. Embedded systems are electronic devices that incorporate microprocessors with in their implementationsPowerPoint Presentation: Embedded systems provide several major functions including monitoring of the analog environment by reading data from sensors and controlling actuator. Embedded System Inputs (sensor) Outputs (actuator)MICROCONTROLLER: MICROCONTROLLER Microcontrollers are used in embedded system products.BLOCK DIAGRAMS: BLOCK DIAGRAMS A T 8 9 S 5 2 POWER SUPPLY JUNCTION (RED, GREEN) Irtx (low) Irtx (high) Rx1 Rx3 DECODER RF RX ENCODE R RF TX BATTERY Transmitting and Receiving sectionsPowerPoint Presentation: HARDWARE COMPONENTS: AT89S52 MICROCONTROLLER 555 TIMER TSOP1738 IR RECEIVER IR LED POWER SUPPLY RF MODULES SIMULATION: TOOL : KEIL MICROVISION PLATFORM : WINDOWS LANGUAGE : EMBEDDED ‘C’About Microcontrollers: About Microcontrollers The 8051 is an original member of the 8051 family. There are two other members in the 8051 family of microcontrollers. They are 8052 and 8031. 8031 has 128 bytes of RAM, two timers and 6 interrupts. 8051 has 4K ROM, 128 bytes of RAM, two timers and 6 interrupts. 8052 has 8K ROM, 256 bytes of RAM, three timers and 8 interrupts. 8051 is the most preferable. Microcontroller supports both serial and parallel communication. Here 8052 microcontroller used is AT89S52, which is manufactured by ATMEL laboratories .Features of AT89S52: Features of AT89S52 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz • 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Low-power Idle and Power-down ModesPIN Diagram of AT89S52: PIN Diagram of AT89S52Block Diagram Of Microcontroller: Block Diagram Of Microcontroller8052 Oscillator and Clock: 8052 Oscillator and Clock Pins XTAL1 And XTAL2 is provided for connecting a resonant network to form an oscillator. Typically a quartz crystal and capacitors are employed. The crystal frequency is the basic internal clock frequency of the microcontroller.Power Supply: Power Supply The Power Supply is designed to convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a suitable low voltage supply. A 5V regulated supply can be shown as below.Transformer: Transformer A transformer steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC. Here we are using a center-tap transformer whose output will be sinusoidal with 36volts peak to peak value.Rectifier: Rectifier A rectifier converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying.There are several types of rectifiers; here we use a bridge rectifier.PowerPoint Presentation: The Bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. For the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D2 and D4 conduct whereas, D1 and D3 remain OFF.Output of the Rectifier: Output of the RectifierSmoothing: Smoothing Smoothing is also named as filtering. Filtering is frequently effected by shunting the load with a capacitor.Smoothing Action Of Capacitor: Smoothing Action Of Capacitor The action of this system depends on the capacitor stores energy during the conduction period and delivers this energy to the loads during the no conducting period.Regulator: Regulator Regulator eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage.PowerPoint Presentation: Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5V, 12V and 15V) or variable output voltages . Negative voltage regulators are also available Zener diode is an example of fixed regulatorTransformer + Rectifier + Smoothing + Regulator: Transformer + Rectifier + Smoothing + RegulatorMAX 232: MAX 232 RS-232 WAVEFORM TTL/CMOS Serial Logic WaveformPowerPoint Presentation: A transmission starts with a start bit which is (Logic 0). Then each bit is sent down the line, one at a time. The LSB (Least Significant Bit) is sent first. A Stop Bit (Logic 1) is then appended to the signal to make up the transmission. The data sent using this method, is said to be framed. That is the data is framed between a Start and Stop bit.RS-232 Voltage levels: RS-232 Voltage levels +3 to +25 volts to signify a "Space" (Logic 0) -3 to -25 volts for a "Mark" (logic 1). Any voltage in between these regions (i.e. between +3 and -3 Volts) is undefined. RS-232 Logic WaveformPowerPoint Presentation: The data byte is always transmitted least-significant-bit first. The bits are transmitted at specific time intervals determined by the baud rate of the serial signal.RS-232 LEVEL CONVERTER: RS-232 LEVEL CONVERTER Standard serial interfacing of microcontroller (TTL) with PC or any RS232C Standard device. It requires TTL to RS232 Level converter. A MAX232 is used for this purpose. It provides 2-channel RS232C port and requires external 10uF capacitors.PowerPoint Presentation: The driver requires a single supply of +5V. MAX-232 includes a Charge Pump, which generates +10V and -10V from a single 5v supply.MICROCONTROLLER INTERFACING WITH RS-232 STANDARD DEVICES: MICROCONTROLLER INTERFACING WITH RS-232 STANDARD DEVICESPowerPoint Presentation: MAX232 (+5V -> +-12V converter) Serial port male 9 pin connector (SER)SETTING SERIAL PORT: SETTING SERIAL PORT SCON 8 bit UART, RN enabled, TI & RI operated by program. - 50hex Timer 1 Count TH1 = 256 - ((Crystal / 384) / Baud) -PCON.7 is clear. TH1 = 256 - ((Crystal / 192) / Baud)-PCON.7 is set. So with PCON.7 is clear we get timer value = FDhexSerial communication between PC and microcontroller: Serial communication between PC and microcontroller Serial data communication uses two methods, asynchronous and synchronous. The synchronous method transfers data at a time while the asynchronous transfers a single byte at a time. In asynchronous method, each character is placed between start and stop bits. This is called framing.PowerPoint Presentation: Today RS232 is the most widely used I/O interfacing standard. This standard is used in PCs and numerous types of equipment.PowerPoint Presentation: However, since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family, its input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible. In RS232, a 1 bit is represented by -3 to -25V, while a 0 bit is represented +3 to +25 V, making -3 to +3 undefined. . For this reason, to connect any RS232 to a microcontroller system we must use voltage converters such as MAX232 to connect the TTL logic levels to RS232 voltage levels and vice versa. MAX232 ICs are commonly referred to as line drivers.INTERRUPTS: INTERRUPTSINFRARED SENSOR: INFRARED SENSOR TSAL 6200 is a high efficiency infrared emitting diode in Ga Al As on Ga As technology modeled in clear, blue-grey tinted plastic packages. In comparison with standard Ga As on Ga As technology. The forward voltages at low current and at high pulse current correspond to the values of the standard technology. INFRARED EMITTING DIODEFEATURES:: FEATURES: Extra high radiant power and radiant intensity and high reliability Low forward voltage Suitable for high pulse current operation Peak wavelength = 940nm Good spectral matching to Si photo detectorsAPPLICATIONS:: APPLICATIONS: IR remote control units with high power requirements Free air transmission systems Infrared source for optical counters and readers IR source for smoke detectorIR RECEIVER: IR RECEIVER Amplifier Limiter B.P.F Demodulator Integrator Comparator TSOP 1356 series are miniaturized receivers for IR remote control systems. The demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a microcontroller. It is standard IR remote control receiver series, supporting all major transmission codes.PowerPoint Presentation: IR Receiver (TSOP 1738) Block diagram of TSOP 1738FEATURES:: FEATURES: Phone detector and preamplifier in one package Internal filter for PCM frequency TTL and CMOS compatibility Output active is low High immunity against ambient light Continuous data transmission possible555 TIMER: 555 TIMER Block Diagram of 555 TimerPowerPoint Presentation: PIN DIAGRAM OF 555 TIMERMONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR USING 555 TIMER: MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR USING 555 TIMERASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR USING 555 TIMER: ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR USING 555 TIMERFEATURES:: FEATURES: High current drive capability Adjustable duty cycle Timing from microseconds to hours Turn off time less than 2 microsecondsCONCLUSION: CONCLUSION Introduction the design of a very efficient Intelligent traffic light controller based on fuzzy logic controller . The proposed Intelligent Traffic Light Controller is more efficient than the conventional controller in respect of less waiting time, more distance travelled by average vehicles and efficient operation during emergency mode and GSM interface. The proposed system has simple architecture, fast response time, user friendliness and scope for further expansion.BIBILOGRAPHY: BIBILOGRAPHY WWW.MITEL.DATABOOK.COM WWW.ATMEL.DATABOOK.COM WWW.FRANKLIN.COM WWW.KEIL.COMPowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.