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EDUCATION Education, as you are aware, is vital to the human resource development and empowerment in the stages of growth of a nation. Swami Vivekananda once said “The solution to every problem is education.” Education in India since last two decades has made great progress towards universalising access to primary school. Over 96 percent of all children are now enrolled in school, there is a very good sign of progress in secondary and higher education also (according to the census of India) literacy rate has gone up from 64.83 per cent in 2001 to 74.04 per cent.

The Problem:

The Problem It is a big challenge to maintain this uniformity. There is a huge difference of 21.12% between urban and rural literacy rates whereas urban contribute with 79.92 per cent and rural with 58.8 per cent rate. Over 40% of worlds population lives in India. A disproportionate share of these illiterate residents lives in rural areas. Right to information Act, 2009 fails to provide quality education.

What is more important? Quality or quantity?:

What is more important? Quality or quantity? Quality is at the heart of education. Thus in all EFA reports released annually UNESCO has shown great concern towards the quality of education. When children supplied with lack of competent and committed teachers , learning materials, instructional time and adequate school facilities, they are unlikely to master the basics


ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of being absence from school without any reasonable reason . In a study by Kremer et al. only 45 per cent teachers were actually present to teach. According to UNESCO EFA Report 2011 one survey in the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh found that regular rural government teachers were absent at least one day a week and that they spent only three quarters of their in-school time teaching.

Nazmul Chaudhury study on absenteeism :

Nazmul Chaudhury study on absenteeism In India, one-quarter of government primary school teachers were absent from school. Only about one-half of the teachers were actually teaching when enumerators arrived at the schools. Study found that absence rates are generally higher in poorer regions . Higher-ranking and more powerful providers, such as headmasters, are absent more often than lower-ranking ones. Contd …

PowerPoint Presentation:

Men are absent more often than women. Teachers from the local area are absent less often . This finding is consistent with the idea that teachers are extremely unlikely to be fired for absence, but that their decisions about whether to go to work are influenced by the working conditions they face. Despite India’s 25 percent teacher-absence rate , only one head teacher in our sample of nearly 3,000 Indian government-run schools reported a case in which a teacher was fired for repeated absence. Contd …..

PowerPoint Presentation:

Teachers are less frequently absent in schools where the parental literacy rate is higher.

Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP):

Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP) This project has been able to find a solution to the teacher absenteeism . This was and is continuing to be one of the major obstacles in achieving the objection UEE. The project has substituted teachers in different-functional schools with local youth known as Shiksha Karmis (SK). SKs are given rigorous training and supervisory support. The results were tremendous as SKs were from same locality their absence recorded was low. Till 1999 this project covered 32 district and 2,715 schools were open where the enrolments crossed toll of 4,829.

NAGALAND Communitisation of Education:

NAGALAND Communitisation of Education The Government of Nagaland introduced the Nagaland Communitisation of Public Institutions and Service Act in 2002. Under this act, responsibility of managing the school both administrative and financial was given to the Village Communities through the Village Education Committees (VECs). The VEC had the power to deduct the salaries of teacher in case of long absenteeism. Contd ……

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Since the communitisation in September 2002, there has been an increase in the enrolment rate for example in the village of Rusoma in Kohima the enrolment in government primary schools at Thephezou from 20 in 2002 to 52 in 2003 and at Ruso Bawe from 37 in 2002 to 73 in 2003.


Dropout There are two category one who are not enrolled and others who were enrolled but dropped out due some problems. According to the World Bank the number of out of school children to an estimated is 8.1 million in 2009. This represents a vast waste of talent and is a source of inefficiency in the education system. Countries need to ensure that gains in enrolment are not eroded by high levels of dropout. Colombia, reduced the dropout rates by improving the quality and relevance of education.

Tackling the problem:

Tackling the problem In view of UNESCO 2011 EFA report Poor-quality education is a major cause of school dropout. The obvious antidote is to raise the level of learning achievement. Ensuring that schools have the necessary teachers, resources and infrastructure is the starting point. But education planners need to look beyond average performance to the specific problems facing children who are at high risk of dropout.

The Udang Experiment- Howrah West Bengal:

The Udang Experiment- Howrah West Bengal The main objective was to make school interesting and reduce dropout through pedagogy related intervention. The experiment introduced music and sports programmes, managed by talented youth of the local villages, which made the schools attractive to the children and increased the daily attendance. The project helped to improve the learning among children and reduce dropout rates by 17 per cent against the state average of 49 per cent.

Case Study:- LOK JUMBISH: CHANGE MINDSET AND STRATEGY (Based on the grass root story/document submitted at education for all 2000 in Dakkar Senegal) :

Case Study:- LOK JUMBISH: CHANGE MINDSET AND STRATEGY (Based on the grass root story/document submitted at education for all 2000 in Dakkar Senegal) Literacy rates in north western Rajasthan state, where the Meos live, was among the lowest in the country and estimated at 56% for men. The literacy rate for women estimated at 20% and that for Meo Muslim women negligible. Traditionally, Meo girls were allowed only Din-e- Taleen (Religious education) offered at the mosque and denied Duniya-Ki-Taleen (general education).

PowerPoint Presentation:

The problem was compounded by the fact that the villagers, in the state’s Bharatpur District, firmly believe that the Hindi-medium education offered in the local government schools was unsuitable for the Meo girls because language was associated with other religion. LOK JUMBISH stabbed in with a simple but workable solution. It offered Urdu as a medium of education. For years (1998-1999), results were tangible in the 82% literacy rates among boys and 57% among girls in 5-14 years of age group. This is quite impressive considering when the project begins, the rates were 28% for boys and 11% for girls.


Conclusion To make uniformity we have to focus on Quality, Absenteeism and Dropout rates. Rural Areas should be given more importance and require care to increase literacy rates. Not only the government, but every literate citizen should contribute in battling with the demon of illiteracy. Our motto should be “Each One Teach One”, if we are to become a developed nation.

Thank for your precious time and co-operation.:

Thank for your precious time and co-operation.

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