METALS AND NON-METALS

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Slide 1: 

METALS AND NON-METALS. CHEMISTRY.

METALS : 

METALS THESE ARE THE SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE ELECTROPOSITIVE IN NATURE. THEY HAVE A TENDENCY TO LOSE ELECTRONS. THEY GENERALLY HAVE 1,2or3 ELETRONS IN THEIR OUTERMOST SHELL.

NON-METALS. : 

NON-METALS. THESE ARE THE SUSTANCES WHICH ELETRONEGATIVE IN NATURE. THEY HAVE A TENDENCY TO GAIN ELETRON. THEY GENERALLY HAVE 4-8 ELECTRONS IN THEIR OUTERMOST SHELL.

Slide 4: 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Slide 5: 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

METALLIODS. : 

METALLIODS. THE ELEMENTS WHICH HAVE INTERMEDIATE PROPERTIES OF BOTH METALS AND NON-METALS ARE CALLED METALLOIDS OR SEMIMETALS. EXAMPLE:POLONIUN, BORON, SILICON, ANTIMONY. ALLOTROPES ARE TWO OR MORE DIFFERENT FORMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT.

REACTION OF METALS WITH OXYGEN. : 

REACTION OF METALS WITH OXYGEN. ALMOST ALL METALS COMBINE WITH OXYGEN TO FORM METAL OXIDES. BUT ALL METALS DO NOT REACT WITH OXYGEN AT THE SAME RATE. DIFFERENT METALS SHOW DIFFERENT REACTIONS TOWARDS OXYGEN. METAL OXIDES ARE BASIC IN NATURE. BUT SOME METALS OXIDES ARE AMPHOTERIC OXIDES.

REACTION OF METALOXIDES WITH H2O. : 

REACTION OF METALOXIDES WITH H2O. MOST OF THE METAL OXIDES ARE INSOLUBLE IN WATER . BUT SOME OF THE METAL OXIDES ARE SOLUBLE IN WATER TO FORM ALKALIES. Na2O(S) + H2O(l)-> 2NaOH(aq).

AMPHOTERIC OXIDES. : 

AMPHOTERIC OXIDES. METAL OXIDES WHICH SHOWS BOTH ACIDIC AS WELL AS BASIC NATURE ARE KNOWN AS AMPHOTERIC OXIDES. SUCH METAL OXIDES WHICH REACTS WITH BOTH ACIDS AS WELL AS BASES TO PRODUCE SALT AND WATER. Ex: ALUMINIUM OXIDES, ZINC OXIDE.

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REACTION OF METALS WITH WATER.

REACTION OF METELS WITH ACIDS. : 

REACTION OF METELS WITH ACIDS. WHEN A METAL REACTS WITH ACIDS WILL GIVE OUT SALT AND WATER. METAL + dil.ACID -> SALT + H2 . EXAMPLE: Zn + 2HCl -> ZnCl2 + H2 .

REACTION OF METALS WITH NITRIC ACID. : 

REACTION OF METALS WITH NITRIC ACID. H2 GAS IS NOT EVOLVED WHEN A METAL REACTS WITH NITRIC ACID. IT IS BECAUSE HNO3 IS A STRONG OXIDISING AGENT . IT OXIDES THE H2 PRODUCED IN WATER AND ITSELF GETS REDUCED TO ANY OF THE NITROGEN OXIDES. BUT MAGNESUIM & MANGANESE WITH VERY dil.HNO3 TO EVOLVE H2 GAS.

ANODISING. : 

ANODISING. IT IS A PROCESS OF FORMING A THICK LAYER OF ALUMINIUM. DURING ANODISING, A CLEAN ALUMINIUM ARTICLE IS MADE THE ANODE AND IS ELETROLYSED WITH DILUTE SULPHURIC ACID. THE OXYGEN GAS EVOLVED AT THE ANODE REACTS WITH ALUMINIUM TO MAKE THICKER PROTECTIVE OXIDE LAYER. THIS LAYER MAKES IT RESISTANT TO FURTHER CORROSION.

DISPLACEMENT REACTION. : 

DISPLACEMENT REACTION. THE REACTION IN WHICH AHIGH REACTIVE METAL DISPLACES A LESS REACTIVE METAL FROM ITS SALT SOLUTION. EXAMPLE: Fe(s)+ CuSO4(aq)->FeSO4(aq)+Cu(s).

REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS : 

REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS

REACTION OF METALS WITH NON-METELS. : 

REACTION OF METALS WITH NON-METELS. WHEN A METAL AND A NON-METAL REACT WITH EASH OTHER ,TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS TAKE PLACE FROM METAL TO NON-METAL. THIS TRANSFER OF ELECTRON IS KNOWN AS IONIC BONDING.

IONIC COMPOUNDS. : 

IONIC COMPOUNDS. THE COMPOUNDS THAT ARE FORMEDBY COMPLETE TRANSFERENCE OF ELECTRONS FROM A METAL TO NON-METAL ARE KNOWN AS IONIC COMPOUNDS. IONIC COMPOUDS HAVE STRONG ATTRACTION BETWEEN THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IONS.

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