Goat milk

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Evaluation of chemical and microbiological quality of raw goat milk in Qena Province :

Evaluation of chemical and microbiological quality of raw goat milk in Qena Province Assiut Vet. Med. J. Vol. 57 No. 129 April 2011 Dr. Karima Galal Abdel Hameed Lecturer of Milk Hygiene Fac. Vet. Med. South Valley Uni.

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Introduction There is growing demand for unpasteurized goat’s milk by consumers ( Harrington et al., 2002 ). This is due to the increasing number of children suffering from intolerance to cow’s milk. Investigation on microbiological quality such as Total Plate Count (TPC), coliforms and the presence of pathogenic bacteria of goat’s milk in Qena province, was very rare. So, there is a clear need to find out more about the present situation regarding the quality of goat’s milk. Goat’s milk has a nutritional value similar to that of cow’s milk Goats are more disease resistance than cows ( Muehlherr et al., 2003).

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Aim of the work The objective of this study was to allow qualitative checking of hygienic conditions of examined raw goat’s milk in Qena province chemically and microbiologically to check the suitability of such milk for public consumption, as well as, for processing of high quality dairy products.

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Materials &methods Samples collection 50 raw goat milk samples Chemical Sanitary Microbiological

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Chemical examination 1- Detection of heat treatment by Storch’s test ( Lampert , 1975 ). 2- Determination of total solids percentage ( A.O.A.C., 1990 ). 3- Determination of water percentage: Water content was calculated by subtracting the total solids percentage from the original weight of the sample before drying. 4- Determination of fat percentage ( A.P.H.A., 1985 ). 5- Determination of solids non fat percentage : The solids non fat percentage of the examined samples was calculated by subtracting the fat percentage from the total solids percentage. 6- Determination of protein percentage : Using formal titration method as described by Schulz, et al . (1953) and modified by Mumm (1970) . 7- Determination of lactose percentage ( Harvey and Hill, 1967 ).

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Sanitary examination Determination of titratable acidity percentage (A.O.A.C., 1990). Microbiological examination 1- Aerobic plate count ( A.P.H.A.,1985 ). 2- Determination of total Coliform and Fecal Coliform counts ( Mercuri and Cox, 1979 ). 3- Enterococci count ( Deibel and Hartman, 1976 ). 4- S. aureus count ( A.O.A.C., 2000 ). 5- Yeast and Mold counts ( Harrigan and McCance , 1976 ).

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Results & conclusion Composition No. of examined samples Min. Max. Mean  SE T.S % 50 9.49 13.3 10.90 ± 0.93 Water % 50 86.7 90.51 89.04 ± 0.94 Fat % 50 2.66 4.84 3.46 ± 0.52 S.N.F % 50 6.57 8.6 7.46 ± 0.32 Protein % 50 2.71 4.9 3.45 ± 0.53 Lactose % 50 2.73 4.59 3.99 ± 0.32 Table 1: Statistical analytical results of chemical composition of the examined goat’s milk samples. Addition of water Partial skimming

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Effect of season Amount of roughages &concentrates in the ration (feeding) Age of animals Methods used for determination of these constituents Stage of lactation The variations in chemical constituents could be attributed to Breed & genotype of animal

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No. of examined samples Min. Max. Mean  SE 50 0.09 0.26 0.15 ± 0.01 Table 2: Statistical analytical results of acidity % of the examined goat’s milk samples. Microbial flora Reflect bad hygienic measures

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Fig. 1: Incidence of different microorganisms in the examined goat’s milk samples.

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The microbiological quality was only marginally acceptable with respect to the total bacteria count. Nevertheless, the presence of pathogenic and indicator organisms, such as, coliforms , fecal coliforms , enterococci , S. aureus and yeasts & molds indicate the growth of these organisms may lead to a hazard against public health. Therefore, practice and regulations, such as on-site pasteurization and implementation of HACCP following established standards, should be introduced to facilitate the production of goat milk of high quality and safety.

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