Google: the answer to life, the universe and everything?

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Presentation given at the Anybook Oxford Libraries conference 2015 held at the Mathematical Institute, Andrew Wiles Building, Oxford University, 21st July 2015

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 1 Google: The answer to life, the universe and everything? The Anybook Oxford Libraries Conference 2015 University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building Tuesday, 21 st July 2015 Karen Blakeman, RBA Information Services Karen.Blakeman@rba.co.uk twitter.com/ karenblakeman http://www.rba.co.uk/as / Photo of the Andrew Wiles building taken by Karen Blakeman and licensed Creative Commons Public Domain dedication This work is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike International License .

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 5 http://searchengineland.com/google-now-on-tap-finds-answers-navigates-between-apps-without-search-222780

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 6 Google's Eric Schmidt: 'The Internet Will Disappear‘ CNBC - YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tf49T45GNd0

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 7 http://www.engadget.com/2015/07/07/google-self-driving-tests-austin-texas/

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 8 Nest, Google and beyond: how much technology do we really want in our homes? http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/jun/27/-sp-the-nest-google-technology-future-homes

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 9 http://www.itproportal.com/2015/06/11/googles-new-company-wants-to-redesign-city-living/

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 10 Artificial Intelligence machine plays video games like a pro - CBBC Newsround http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/31633702 Google buys two more UK artificial intelligence startups http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/oct/23/google-uk-artificial-intelligence-startups-machine-learning-dark-blue-labs-vision-factory Google buys UK artificial intelligence startup Deepmind for £400m http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jan/27/google-acquires-uk-artificial-intelligence-startup-deepmind

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www.rba.co.uk 11 Google wants to rank websites based on facts not links - 28 February 2015 - New Scientist http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22530102.600-google-wants-to-rank-websites-based-on-facts-not-links.html 7/22/2015 http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03519

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 12 New Google, New Challenges http://www.cilip.org.uk/uk-einformation-group/elucidate-ukeigs-journal/elucidate-current-issue/new-google-new-challenges The Internet of Things ( IoT ): Creating Really Big Data http://www.cilip.org.uk/uk-einformation-group/elucidate-ukeigs-journal/elucidate-current-issue/internet-things-iot-creating

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Google no longer looks at keywords in isolation Tries to make “sense” of your search and put it into context, natural language queries, uses what others have searched and clicked on Artificial intelligence part of the mix? Heavy personalisation Constantly changing – all bets are off when it comes to predicting what your results will look like How you ask your question is taken into account, device you are using is taken into account Providing Quick Answers and “facts”, extracts from websites giving you the “answer” www.rba.co.uk 13 7/22/2015

Compare :

Compare 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 14 compare chocolate with banana

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And then on another day...:

www.rba.co.uk 18 And then on another day... 7/22/2015

http://googlesystem.blogspot.co.uk/2013/11/google-knowledge-graph-gets-confused.html :

http://googlesystem.blogspot.co.uk/2013/11/google-knowledge-graph-gets-confused.html www.rba.co.uk 19 7/22/2015

One of many wrong Quick Answers submitted to me by a delegate at a recent conference:

One of many wrong Quick Answers submitted to me by a delegate at a recent conference www.rba.co.uk 20 Many thanks to Philip Stirups for the example. About 24 hours after taking this screen shot Google corrected the error. 7/22/2015

EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling:

EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 21 Mario Costeja Gonzalez Edition of Monday, January 19, 1998, page 23 - Newspaper - Lavanguardia.es http://hemeroteca.lavanguardia.com/preview/1998/01/19/pagina-23/33842001/pdf.html EU Court of Justice ruled that Google is a “data controller” under Data Protection legislation and must remove, if requested, links to information that is “inadequate, irrelevant .... or excessive” from search results on a person’s name.

EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling:

Information is NOT removed from the web, only the link to information in the search results Not automatic – subject has to apply to have links that point to specific information about themselves removed from the results. Google may decide not to remove. Google accidentally reveals data on 'right to be forgotten' requests http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/jul/14/google-accidentally-reveals-right-to-be-forgotten-requests Not just Google – all search engines with an EU presence At present it only applies to searches conducted in the EU + Norway, Switzerland, Iceland and Lichtenstein but may become worldwide. 22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 22 EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling

EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling:

Google adds removal statement from all results for searches on personal names even if nothing has been removed. (Does not apply to public figures, famous people or celebrities) Use non-European Google to see all results e.g. Google.com, Google.ca but France and others want all country versions of search engines to remove links Russian Parliament Approves "Right To Be Forgotten" In Search Engines http://searchengineland.com/russia-right-to-forget-224466 22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 23 EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling

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Google automatically looks for variations on your search terms and sometimes drops terms from your search Google now tells you which terms it has ignored (some of the time) “..” around terms, phrases, names, titles of documents does not always work To force an exact match and inclusion of a term in a search prefix it with ‘ intext :’ intext:agricultural occupational asthma Use Verbatim for an exact match search 7/22/2015 24 www.rba.co.uk

Google Verbatim:

Google Verbatim 22/07/2015 25 www.rba.co.uk

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Google web search does not search everything it has in its database two indexes: main, default index and the supplemental index supplemental index may contain less popular, unusual, specialist material supplemental index comes into play when Google thinks your search has returned too few results Verbatim and some advanced search commands seems to trigger a search in the supplemental index 7/22/2015 26 www.rba.co.uk

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22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 27 “Normal search” 204,000 Search after Verbatim is applied 946,000

Think file format:

Think file format PDF for research documents, government reports, industry papers ppt or pptx for presentations, tracking down an expert on a topic xls or xlsx for spreadsheets containing data Use the advanced search screen or filetype: UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:pdf UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:ppt UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:pptx UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:xls UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:xlsx 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 28

Google commands:

Google commands Site search For searching large websites, or groups of sites by type for example government, NHS, academic Can exclude sites using -site: agricultural occupational asthma UK site:nhs.uk agricultural occupational asthma UK site:ac.uk agricultural occupational asthma UK site:www.gov.uk agricultural occupational asthma UK site:gov.uk agricultural occupational asthma UK site:gov.uk - site:hse.gov.uk 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 29

Date/Any time:

Date/Any time Restrict your results to information that has been published within the last hour, day, week, month, year or your own date range Search tools , Any time and select an option [does NOT work with Verbatim] 22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 30

daterange::

daterange: Date/Any time menu option can not be used with Verbatim Use daterange : command instead Uses Julian date format (fractions omitted) Julian Date Converter, and information on Julian date format) is at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/JulianDate.php/ Convert your dates to the Julian format and then, omitting the fractions, copy and paste them into your search Syntax for example articles between September 1 st and November 1 st 2014 on the roll out of universal credit universal credit announcement daterange:2456901-2456962 Then apply Verbatim to the results page 22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 31

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22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 33 Run your search and then apply Verbatim

http://www.google.com/publicdata/ Google Public Data Explorer - minimum wage search:

http://www.google.com/publicdata/ Google Public Data Explorer - minimum wage search www.rba.co.uk 34 Some countries were missing e.g. Germany 7/22/2015

Eurostat - Minimum Wage:

Eurostat - Minimum Wage www.rba.co.uk 35 7/22/2015

Google Scholar http://scholar.google.com/ :

Google Scholar http://scholar.google.com/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 36

Google Patents http://patents.google.com/ :

Google Patents http://patents.google.com/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 37 Free sources for patent searching http://bir.sagepub.com/content/31/4/216.abstract Full-text patent searching on free websites http://bir.sagepub.com/content/31/4/226.abstract

books.google.com :

books.google.com Or use the Books option under More on the results page. Includes archives of some magazines and newspapers 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 38

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Other search tools 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 39

Bing/Yahoo:

Bing/Yahoo Yahoo now uses Bing’s database, commands and ranking algorithms Yahoo Finance still available No advanced search screen on Bing - use commands List at Advanced Operator Reference http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff795620.aspx filetype: site: inbody : intitle : AND, NOT, OR parentheses for complex Boolean searches near:n where n is a number, specifies that the terms must be within that number of words of each other and in any order 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 40

bingiton.com:

bingiton.com 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 41

DuckDuckGo – http://duckduckgo.com/ :

DuckDuckGo – http://duckduckgo.com/ Does not track, does not personalise R esults are a compilation of about 50 sources including Wikipedia, Wolfram Alpha, Bing, and its own Web crawler DuckDuckBot . “In partnership with Yandex ” Advanced search commands include: site: inbody : intitle : filetype: region:cc (e.g. de) to boost a country DuckDuckGo Syntax http://help.duckduckgo.com/customer/portal/articles/300304 DuckDuckGo – silly name but a neat little search tool http://www.rba.co.uk/wordpress/2011/11/07/duckduckgo-silly-name-but-a-neat-little-search-tool/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 42

Million Short:

Million Short 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 43

Carrotsearch http://carrotsearch.com/ :

Carrotsearch http://carrotsearch.com/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 44

eTools.ch:

eTools.ch 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 45

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 46 Specialist search tools

Institutional repositories and open access:

Institutional repositories and open access BASE - Bielefeld Academic Search Engine http://www.base-search.net/ CORE ( COnnecting Repositories) http://core.kmi.open.ac.uk/search DART-Europe E-theses Portal http://www.dart-europe.eu/basic-search.php DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org/ British Library EThOS - Search and order theses online http://ethos.bl.uk/ Open DOAR http://opendoar.org/ RIAN - Pathways to Irish Research http://rian.ie ROAR - Registry of Open Access Repositories http://roar.eprints.org/ OpenAIRE http://www.openaire.eu/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 47

Specialist search tools for research information:

Specialist search tools for research information ArXiv http://arxiv.org/ BioMed Central http://www.biomedcentral.com/ Chemistry Central http://www.chemistrycentral.com/ ChemSpider http://www.chemspider.com/ Deep Web Technologies Mednar http://mednar.com/ Science.gov http://www.science.gov/ Science Research http://scienceresearch.com/ WorldWideScience http://worldwidescience.org/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 48

Specialist search tools for research information:

Specialist search tools for research information Europe PubMed Central http://europepmc.org/ Open Biology http://rsob.royalsocietypublishing.org/ PhilPapers : Online Research in Philosophy http://philpapers.org/ PubMed Central http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ SSRN http://www.ssrn.com/en/   7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 49

ResearchGate - http://www.researchgate.net/ :

ResearchGate - http://www.researchgate.net/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 50

Slideshare.net:

7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 51 Slideshare.net

Oh joy - NOT!:

Oh joy - NOT! www.rba.co.uk 52 More UK information vanishes into GOV.UK http://www.rba.co.uk/wordpress/2015/02/28/more-uk-information-vanishes-into-gov-uk/ 7/22/2015

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/webarchive/ :

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/webarchive/ www.rba.co.uk 53 7/22/2015

http://www.webarchive.org.uk/ukwa/:

http://www.webarchive.org.uk/ukwa/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 54

Wayback Machine http://www.archive.org/ :

Wayback Machine http://www.archive.org/ www.rba.co.uk 55 7/22/2015

Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA) http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/ :

Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA) http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 56

http://www.offstats.auckland.ac.nz/ :

http://www.offstats.auckland.ac.nz/ 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 57

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7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 58 The Guardian http://www.theguardian.com/data

Spurious correlations! Per capita consumption of cheese (US) correlates with Number of people who died by becoming tangled in their bedsheets http://www.tylervigen.com/view_correlation?id=7 :

Spurious correlations! Per capita consumption of cheese (US) correlates with Number of people who died by becoming tangled in their bedsheets http://www.tylervigen.com/view_correlation?id=7 www.rba.co.uk 59 7/22/2015

News:

News For tracking down individual newspapers http://www.abyznewslinks.com/ Google News advanced search options limited and not always reliable no source list and sources frequently change key industry publications may not be included and definitely not included if subscription Use Google news and web search to identify specialist news portals or aggregators for your subject and monitor those direct 22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 60

Social and professional networks:

Social and professional networks 22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 61

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22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 62

Topsy.com:

Topsy.com 22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 63

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22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 64 Topsy analytics and advanced search

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22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 65 Meltwater Icerocket blogs trend tool www.icerocket.com/c?p=trend

Boardreader http://boardreader.com// :

Boardreader http://boardreader.com// 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 66

What could possibly go wrong?:

What could possibly go wrong? 22/07/2015 www.rba.co.uk 67 Unofficial Facebook page Fake Facebook page Parody account

Further reading:

Further reading 7/22/2015 www.rba.co.uk 68 Search Strategies - Search Tools Summary and Comparison http://www.rba.co.uk/search/compare.shtml Inside Search Power Searching with Google http://www.powersearchingwithgoogle.com/ Search Engine Watch http://searchenginewatch.com/ Search Engine Roundtable http://www.seroundtable.com/ Search Engine http://searchengineland.com/ Phil Bradley's weblog http://www.philbradley.typepad.com/ Karen Blakeman's Blog | News and comments on search tools and electronic resources for research http://www.rba.co.uk/wordpress/

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