Google: the answer to life, the universe and everything?

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Presentation given at the Anybook Oxford Libraries conference 2015 held at the Mathematical Institute, Andrew Wiles Building, Oxford University, 21st July 2015


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7/22/2015 1 Google: The answer to life, the universe and everything? The Anybook Oxford Libraries Conference 2015 University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building Tuesday, 21 st July 2015 Karen Blakeman, RBA Information Services karenblakeman / Photo of the Andrew Wiles building taken by Karen Blakeman and licensed Creative Commons Public Domain dedication This work is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike International License .

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7/22/2015 6 Google's Eric Schmidt: 'The Internet Will Disappear‘ CNBC - YouTube

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7/22/2015 8 Nest, Google and beyond: how much technology do we really want in our homes?

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7/22/2015 10 Artificial Intelligence machine plays video games like a pro - CBBC Newsround Google buys two more UK artificial intelligence startups Google buys UK artificial intelligence startup Deepmind for £400m

Slide 11: 11 Google wants to rank websites based on facts not links - 28 February 2015 - New Scientist 7/22/2015

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7/22/2015 12 New Google, New Challenges The Internet of Things ( IoT ): Creating Really Big Data

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Google no longer looks at keywords in isolation Tries to make “sense” of your search and put it into context, natural language queries, uses what others have searched and clicked on Artificial intelligence part of the mix? Heavy personalisation Constantly changing – all bets are off when it comes to predicting what your results will look like How you ask your question is taken into account, device you are using is taken into account Providing Quick Answers and “facts”, extracts from websites giving you the “answer” 13 7/22/2015

Compare :

Compare 7/22/2015 14 compare chocolate with banana

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And then on another day...: 18 And then on another day... 7/22/2015 : 19 7/22/2015

One of many wrong Quick Answers submitted to me by a delegate at a recent conference:

One of many wrong Quick Answers submitted to me by a delegate at a recent conference 20 Many thanks to Philip Stirups for the example. About 24 hours after taking this screen shot Google corrected the error. 7/22/2015

EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling:

EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling 7/22/2015 21 Mario Costeja Gonzalez Edition of Monday, January 19, 1998, page 23 - Newspaper - EU Court of Justice ruled that Google is a “data controller” under Data Protection legislation and must remove, if requested, links to information that is “inadequate, irrelevant .... or excessive” from search results on a person’s name.

EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling:

Information is NOT removed from the web, only the link to information in the search results Not automatic – subject has to apply to have links that point to specific information about themselves removed from the results. Google may decide not to remove. Google accidentally reveals data on 'right to be forgotten' requests Not just Google – all search engines with an EU presence At present it only applies to searches conducted in the EU + Norway, Switzerland, Iceland and Lichtenstein but may become worldwide. 22/07/2015 22 EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling

EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling:

Google adds removal statement from all results for searches on personal names even if nothing has been removed. (Does not apply to public figures, famous people or celebrities) Use non-European Google to see all results e.g., but France and others want all country versions of search engines to remove links Russian Parliament Approves "Right To Be Forgotten" In Search Engines 22/07/2015 23 EU - so called “right to be forgotten” ruling

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Google automatically looks for variations on your search terms and sometimes drops terms from your search Google now tells you which terms it has ignored (some of the time) “..” around terms, phrases, names, titles of documents does not always work To force an exact match and inclusion of a term in a search prefix it with ‘ intext :’ intext:agricultural occupational asthma Use Verbatim for an exact match search 7/22/2015 24

Google Verbatim:

Google Verbatim 22/07/2015 25

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Google web search does not search everything it has in its database two indexes: main, default index and the supplemental index supplemental index may contain less popular, unusual, specialist material supplemental index comes into play when Google thinks your search has returned too few results Verbatim and some advanced search commands seems to trigger a search in the supplemental index 7/22/2015 26

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22/07/2015 27 “Normal search” 204,000 Search after Verbatim is applied 946,000

Think file format:

Think file format PDF for research documents, government reports, industry papers ppt or pptx for presentations, tracking down an expert on a topic xls or xlsx for spreadsheets containing data Use the advanced search screen or filetype: UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:pdf UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:ppt UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:pptx UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:xls UK waste vegetable oil energy generation filetype:xlsx 7/22/2015 28

Google commands:

Google commands Site search For searching large websites, or groups of sites by type for example government, NHS, academic Can exclude sites using -site: agricultural occupational asthma UK agricultural occupational asthma UK agricultural occupational asthma UK agricultural occupational asthma UK agricultural occupational asthma UK - 7/22/2015 29

Date/Any time:

Date/Any time Restrict your results to information that has been published within the last hour, day, week, month, year or your own date range Search tools , Any time and select an option [does NOT work with Verbatim] 22/07/2015 30


daterange: Date/Any time menu option can not be used with Verbatim Use daterange : command instead Uses Julian date format (fractions omitted) Julian Date Converter, and information on Julian date format) is at Convert your dates to the Julian format and then, omitting the fractions, copy and paste them into your search Syntax for example articles between September 1 st and November 1 st 2014 on the roll out of universal credit universal credit announcement daterange:2456901-2456962 Then apply Verbatim to the results page 22/07/2015 31

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22/07/2015 33 Run your search and then apply Verbatim Google Public Data Explorer - minimum wage search: Google Public Data Explorer - minimum wage search 34 Some countries were missing e.g. Germany 7/22/2015

Eurostat - Minimum Wage:

Eurostat - Minimum Wage 35 7/22/2015

Google Scholar :

Google Scholar 7/22/2015 36

Google Patents :

Google Patents 7/22/2015 37 Free sources for patent searching Full-text patent searching on free websites : Or use the Books option under More on the results page. Includes archives of some magazines and newspapers 7/22/2015 38

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Other search tools 7/22/2015 39


Bing/Yahoo Yahoo now uses Bing’s database, commands and ranking algorithms Yahoo Finance still available No advanced search screen on Bing - use commands List at Advanced Operator Reference filetype: site: inbody : intitle : AND, NOT, OR parentheses for complex Boolean searches near:n where n is a number, specifies that the terms must be within that number of words of each other and in any order 7/22/2015 40 7/22/2015 41

DuckDuckGo – :

DuckDuckGo – Does not track, does not personalise R esults are a compilation of about 50 sources including Wikipedia, Wolfram Alpha, Bing, and its own Web crawler DuckDuckBot . “In partnership with Yandex ” Advanced search commands include: site: inbody : intitle : filetype: region:cc (e.g. de) to boost a country DuckDuckGo Syntax DuckDuckGo – silly name but a neat little search tool 7/22/2015 42

Million Short:

Million Short 7/22/2015 43

Carrotsearch :

Carrotsearch 7/22/2015 44 7/22/2015 45

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7/22/2015 46 Specialist search tools

Institutional repositories and open access:

Institutional repositories and open access BASE - Bielefeld Academic Search Engine CORE ( COnnecting Repositories) DART-Europe E-theses Portal DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals British Library EThOS - Search and order theses online Open DOAR RIAN - Pathways to Irish Research ROAR - Registry of Open Access Repositories OpenAIRE 7/22/2015 47

Specialist search tools for research information:

Specialist search tools for research information ArXiv BioMed Central Chemistry Central ChemSpider Deep Web Technologies Mednar Science Research WorldWideScience 7/22/2015 48

Specialist search tools for research information:

Specialist search tools for research information Europe PubMed Central Open Biology PhilPapers : Online Research in Philosophy PubMed Central SSRN   7/22/2015 49

ResearchGate - :

ResearchGate - 7/22/2015 50

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Oh joy - NOT!:

Oh joy - NOT! 52 More UK information vanishes into GOV.UK 7/22/2015 : 53 7/22/2015 7/22/2015 54

Wayback Machine :

Wayback Machine 55 7/22/2015

Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA) :

Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA) 7/22/2015 56 : 7/22/2015 57

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7/22/2015 58 The Guardian

Spurious correlations! Per capita consumption of cheese (US) correlates with Number of people who died by becoming tangled in their bedsheets :

Spurious correlations! Per capita consumption of cheese (US) correlates with Number of people who died by becoming tangled in their bedsheets 59 7/22/2015


News For tracking down individual newspapers Google News advanced search options limited and not always reliable no source list and sources frequently change key industry publications may not be included and definitely not included if subscription Use Google news and web search to identify specialist news portals or aggregators for your subject and monitor those direct 22/07/2015 60

Social and professional networks:

Social and professional networks 22/07/2015 61

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22/07/2015 64 Topsy analytics and advanced search

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22/07/2015 65 Meltwater Icerocket blogs trend tool

Boardreader :

Boardreader 7/22/2015 66

What could possibly go wrong?:

What could possibly go wrong? 22/07/2015 67 Unofficial Facebook page Fake Facebook page Parody account

Further reading:

Further reading 7/22/2015 68 Search Strategies - Search Tools Summary and Comparison Inside Search Power Searching with Google Search Engine Watch Search Engine Roundtable Search Engine Phil Bradley's weblog Karen Blakeman's Blog | News and comments on search tools and electronic resources for research

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