Unit Lesson Design as pdf by Karen Hebert

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Karen Hebert's Unit Lesson Design for Ramona - Helen Hunt Jackson

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Unit Lesson Design by Karen Hebert 1. Argumentative Question: Was the United States justified in their belief of “Manifest Destiny” and the treatment of Native American Indians I chose this theme as I am particularly interested in the history of California Native Americans and I find it intriguing that Helen Hunt Jackson wrote these two works one non-fiction and one fiction to try to inform Americans of the mistreatment of Native Americans each with having different results. I teach 4 th grade but the novel Ramona would be too far advanced for them to read. I do show the movie Ishi to my class. I would teach this to an 8 th grade class. 2. Major Work to be Studied: Ramona by Helen Hunt Jackson English Language Arts Standards for Literature: RL.8.1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. RL.8.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text including its relationship to the characters setting and plot provide an objective summary of the text. RL.8.3 Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action reveal aspects of a character or provoke a decision. RL.8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text including figurative and connotative meanings analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone including analogies or allusions to other texts. RL.8.5 Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style. RL.8.6 Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader create such effects as suspense or humor. RL.8.10 By the end of the year read and comprehend literature including stories dramas and poems at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

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3. Non-Fiction Other Works to Study: Helen Hunt Jackson: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Hunt_Jackson Ramona: More than just a love story: http://ramonabowl.com/just-love-story/ Bloody Island Massacre: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloody_Island_Massacre Early California Laws and Policies Related to the California Indians: https://www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/14/02-014.pdf Dawes Act: http://public.csusm.edu/nadp/a1887.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dawes_Act Painting: American Progress A Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson First People: An Illustrated History of American Indians by David King Film: Ishi The Last Yahi

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Indian Removal Act: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi- bin/ampagecollIdllslfileName004/llsl004.dbrecNum458 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians: http://www.indiancanyon.org/ACTof1850.html 8 th Grade English Language Arts Standards for Information Text: RI.8.1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. RI.8.2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text including its relationship to supporting ideas provide an objective summary of the text. RI.8.3 Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals ideas or events RI.8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text including figurative connotative and technical meanings analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone including analogies or allusions to other texts. RI.8.5 Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept. RI.8.6 Determine an authors point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

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RI.8.7 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums e.g. print or digital text video multimedia to present a particular topic or idea. RI.8.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. RI.8.9 Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation. RI.8.10 By the end of the year read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 8 th Grade Speaking and Listening Standards: SL8.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions one-on-one in groups and teacher-led with diverse partners on grade 8 topics texts and issues building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly. SL.8.1.A Come to discussions prepared having read or researched material under study explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic text or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. SL.8.1.B Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making track progress toward specific goals and deadlines and define individual roles as needed. SL.8.1.C Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others questions and comments with relevant evidence observations and ideas. SL.8.1.D Acknowledge new information expressed by others and when warranted qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented. SL.8.2 Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats e.g. visually quantitatively orally and evaluate the motives e.g. social commercial political behind its presentation. SL.8.3 Delineate a speakers argument and specific claims evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. SL.8.4 Present claims and findings emphasizing salient points in a focused coherent manner with relevant evidence sound valid reasoning and well-chosen details use appropriate eye contact adequate volume and clear pronunciation. SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information strengthen claims and evidence and add interest. SL.8.6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. 8 th Grade English/Language Arts Standards for History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. RH.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. RH.6-8.3 Identify key steps in a texts description of a process related to history/social studies

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RH.6-8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. RH.6-8.5 Describe how a text presents information e.g. sequentially comparatively causally. RH.6-8.6 Identify aspects of a text that reveal an authors point of view or purpose e.g. loaded language inclusion or avoidance of particular facts. RH.6-8.7 Integrate visual information e.g. in charts graphs photographs videos or maps with other information in print and digital texts. RH.6-8.8 Distinguish among fact opinion and reasoned judgment in a text. RH.6-8.9 Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. RH.6-8.10 By the end of grade 8 read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 4. Grammar and Vocabulary: Ramona was written in 1884 and contains many words and phrases familiar to readers at the time but Students would best be served with scaffolding of many vocabulary words and phrases such as: hiatus mollified contemptuous epithet rue pious “as old as Methuselah” usurping supplications etc. Some of the dialogue is confusing too such as: “Ef we kin git settled ‘n some o’these towns where there’s carpenterin’ to be done I kin airn right smart at weavin’ jest give mea good carpet-loom ‘n I won’t be beholden to nobody for vittles.” Fortunately only one character in particular speaks this way and he is only present for a short time. 8 th Grade English Language Arts Standards for Reading Literature: RL.8.3 Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action reveal aspects of a character or provoke a decision. RL.8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text including figurative and connotative meanings analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone including analogies or allusions to other texts. 5. Writing: Students will be given 4 writing prompts to choose from: 1. Was the United States justified in their belief of “Manifest Destiny” and the treatment of Native American Indians

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2. Mission Indian Agent S.S. Lawson said that Helen Hunt Jackson was “driven by mere sentiment with no knowledge of Indian character… and was stirring up discontent.” Theodore Roosevelt was quoted a saying that the book A Century of Dishonor was a “spiteful diatribe capable of doing great harm when quoted by a large class of amiable but maudlin fanatics.” Write an essay in which you either agree or disagree with these statements and use evidence and relevant facts from all the works we have read. 3. Write an essay in which you either agree with promoting assimilation policies or the protection of Indian land rights citing evidence from any of the works studied and relevant facts. 4. Helen Hunt Jackson’s first impressions of Native Americans were that they were “hideous” and “loathesome.” Yet a few years later she was quoted as saying “I hope to write a story which will do something to influence public sentiment on the Indian question: more perhaps than my ‘Century of Dishonor.’ I intend my novel to set forth some Indian experiences in a way to move people’s hearts. People will read a novel when they will not read serious books.” Critics called it a “successful love story but totally inadequate in presenting the Indian problem.” Write an essay in which you agree or disagree with the critics’ statements using evidence from the story. 8 th Grade English Language Arts Standards for Writing: W.8.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence W.8.1.A Introduce claims acknowledge and distinguish the claims from alternate or opposing claims and organize the reasons and evidence logically. W.8.1.B Support claims with logical reasoning and relevant evidence using accurate credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. W.8.1.C Use words phrases and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claims counterclaims reasons and evidence. W.8.1.D Establish and maintain a formal style. W.8.1.E Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. W.8.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas concepts and

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information through the selection organization and analysis of relevant content. W.8.2.A Introduce a topic clearly previewing what is to follow organize ideas concepts and information into broader categories include formatting e.g. headings graphics e.g. charts tables and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. W.8.2.B Develop the topic with relevant well-chosen facts definitions concrete details quotations or other information and examples. W.8.2.C Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. W.8.2.D Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. W.8.2.E Establish and maintain a formal style. W.8.2.F Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. 6. Poetry: I have found a few poems that I would like to share with the class. All of the poems talk of the injustices the Native Americans faced. Two of the poems were written recently but the middle poem was written in 1830. I really wanted to find a poem that showed Manifest Destiny in a positive light something that showed the American sentiment at the time of expansion and show both sides but could not find anything. This first one is titled “Trail of Tears.” Theres a trail of tears Flowing from our homeland Washing out the years Drowning out the red man. Theres a broken heart beating like a funeral drum A nation torn apart So one can be born. Theres a memory That the eagle holds high When we were free As the wind in the sky. Theres a feeling inside That stirs our madness To have a chosen life In the fields of sadness. There are some empty teepees

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Falling into dust Like an endangered species Were losing way too much We are a world forgotten Pushed aside and left alone But comes a time when we will rise again. Oh Great One hear our prayers and our song. written by Mojomike8 This next poem is called “The Cherokees Appeal” and appeared in a Massassachusetts newspaper in April 1830. Author is unknown but is “almost certainly written by a non-Indian who sympathized with the southeastern tribes.” We cannot leave our fathers’ graves We cannot leave our native place And go beyond Arkansas’ waves To mingle with another race. These western wilds are far away Among the regions of the west Where wolves and panthers thirst for prey And eagles build their airy nest: Where our forefathers ne’er pursu’d The wild game thro’ Arkansas wood Nor ever were their footsteps traced Among the regions of this waste. But here have dwelt from days of yore Around Savannah’s inland shore. These lands around us which we claim Sustain’d our sires from age to age And since the white man ’mongst us came Has been confirm’d by treaties sage. Their fair smooth brows we all might trust But treachery seem’d to lurk within Your promises we now distrust And deem your broken faith a sin. Oh bid us not from here to roam No other spot can feel like home

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“Manifest Destiny Rides Again” Written by G.R. Gaus 2012 We call ourselves Americans Have we erased the past Forgotten how this land was won Cant hear the distant blast Mighty cannon shining gun Below the setting sun. We call ourselves Americans Destiny was our vow A legal word to burn and kill Ask not the why or how Look back beyond the hill Blood for honors spill. We call ourselves Americans An ancient culture tossed Missionarys spread disease Entire tribes were lost Women children to their knees A warriors pride was seized. We call ourselves Americans Although weve just arrived They were here twelve thousand years Somehow they survived We introduced our naked fears They walked The Trail of Tears. We call ourselves Americans The Massacre at Sand Creek Continued on twenty six years Final slaughter Wounded Knee Making room for the pioneer While tribes of natives disappear. We call ourselves Americans All treaties have been broken To reservations on barren land With words that went unspoken Systematic schemed and planned Except for Custer his last stand. We call ourselves Americans We raise our banner high Forgive me if I dont salute Instead a woeful sigh In memory of the last minute Reduced to disrepute.

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We call ourselves Americans Standing tall for freedom Details to be soon resolved Love it here or leave em See how far weve evolved One nation soon dissolved. I call myself an American Its here Ill make my peace Accept the things I cannot change In hopes the bigotry will cease Buffalo once roamed and ranged Genocide was once exchanged. For those few true Americans Ones who know this story well Survivors of your generations Grandfather’s tales heard tell With nature were your relations Once countless Indian Nations. 8 th Grade English Language Arts for Literature RL.8.10 By the end of the year read and comprehend literature including stories dramas and poems at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 7. Timeline: This unit will take an entire quarter – approximately 10 weeks. I envision Ramona as a teacher read-aloud. It has 26 chapters and I plan on reading one chapter per day leaving enough class time to discuss important vocabulary terms from each chapter. A Century of Dishonor will be run in two literature circles each taking one week to analyze. The first Literature Circle covers the seven different tribes mentioned in the first half of the book while the second literature circle will analyze the massacres mentioned in the second half of the book along with the Sand Creek and Wounded Knee Massacres from the book First People and the Bloody Island Massacre information. One week will be for studying the various Policies and Acts by the Government and another week for the poetry and paintings leaving two weeks for students to write and edit their essays. The DoK questions will be for class discussions or homework.

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Five Text-Based Questions for Ramona: 1. Analyze why Ramona despite the popularity of the novel did not bring the intended results to the plight of the Native Americans. 2. Create a map of the major points of interest and cities mentioned in the novel. 3. Cite evidence as to why Ramona and Felipe chose to leave the Moreno estate for Mexico. 4. Predict what might have happened to the Moreno estate had Felipe and Ramona not decided to sell and move to Mexico. 5. Investigate the actual events that occurred in Southern California that are written in the novel. Five Text-Based Questions for Early California Laws and Policies Related to the California Indians: https://www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/14/02-014.pdf 1. Analyze the 4 examples in this study of early State of California laws and policies that impacted the California Indian way of life. 2. Critique the inequitable due process of 1850s Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. 3. Interpret Tables 1 and 2 for the “Expenditures by the State of California for Military Expenditures ordered by the Governor for the Suppression of Indian Hostilities.” 4. Create a map of the California “Expeditions” listed in Tables 1 and 2. 5. Read this quote by then-Governor Burnett and analyze why Federal Treaties with Native Americans caused problems in California. Among the more immediate causes that have precipitated this state of frontier hostilities may be mentioned the neglect of the General Government to make treaties with the Indians for their lands. We have suddenly spread ourselves over the country in every direction and appropriated whatever portion of it we pleased to ourselves without their consent and without compensation. Governor Peter H. Burnett January 7 185164

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