NS2

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Network Simulator Tutorial : 

1 Network Simulator Tutorial Advanced Computer Networks (CS378)

Network Simulation * : 

*Jim Kurose, University of Massachusets, Amherst 2 Network Simulation * Motivation: Learn fundamentals of evaluating network performance via simulation Overview: fundamentals of discrete event simulation ns-2 simulation

What is simulation? * : 

*Jim Kurose, University of Massachusets, Amherst 3 What is simulation? *

Why Simulation? * : 

*Jim Kurose, University of Massachusets, Amherst 4 Why Simulation? * real-system not available, is complex/costly or dangerous (eg: space simulations, flight simulations) quickly evaluate design alternatives (eg: different system configurations) evaluate complex functions for which closed form formulas or numerical techniques not available

Simulation: advantages/drawbacks* : 

*Jim Kurose, University of Massachusets, Amherst 5 Simulation: advantages/drawbacks* advantages: sometimes cheaper find bugs (in design) in advance generality: over analytic/numerical techniques detail: can simulate system details at arbitrary level drawbacks: caution: does model reflect reality large scale systems: lots of resources to simulate (especially accurately simulate) may be slow (computationally expensive – 1 min real time could be hours of simulated time) art: determining right level of model complexity statistical uncertainty in results

The evaluation spectrum* : 

*Jim Kurose, University of Massachusets, Amherst 6 The evaluation spectrum* Numerical models Simulation Emulation Prototype Operational system

Programming a simulation* : 

*Jim Kurose, University of Massachusets, Amherst 7 Programming a simulation* What ‘s in a simulation program? simulated time: internal (to simulation program) variable that keeps track of simulated time system “state”: variables maintained by simulation program define system “state” e.g., may track number (possibly order) of packets in queue, current value of retransmission timer events: points in time when system changes state each event has associate event time e.g., arrival of packet to queue, departure from queue precisely at these points in time that simulation must take action (change state and may cause new future events) model for time between events (probabilistic) caused by external environment

Simulator Structure* : 

*Jim Kurose, University of Massachusets, Amherst 8 Simulator Structure* simulation program maintains and updates list of future events: event list Need: well defined set of events for each event: simulated system action, updating of event list

Simulator Block Diagram* : 

*Jim Kurose, University of Massachusets, Amherst 9 Simulator Block Diagram*

NS2 Outline : 

10 NS2 Outline What is it? How do I get it? How do I use it? How do I add to it? Documentation Bug-Fixing

What is NS2? : 

11 What is NS2? Network Simulator A package of tools that simulates behavior of networks Create Network Topologies Log events that happen under any load Analyze events to understand the network behavior

Creating Topologies : 

12 Creating Topologies n1 n4 n2 n5 n6 n3 5Mbps, 10ms 2Mbps, 20ms 300Kbps, 100ms 300Kbps, 100ms 500Kbps, 50ms

Creating Topologies : 

13 Creating Topologies Nodes Set properties like queue length, location Protocols, routing algorithms Links Set types of link – Simplex, duplex, wireless, satellite Set bandwidth, latency etc. Done through tcl Scripts

Observing Network Behavior : 

14 Observing Network Behavior Observe behavior by tracing “events” Eg. packet received, packet drop etc. time Src Dst IP Address, Port

Observing Network Behavior : 

15 Observing Network Behavior NAM: Network Animator A visual aid showing how packets flow along the network We’ll see a demo..

Outline : 

16 Outline What is it? How do I get it? How do I use it? How do I add to it? Documentation Bug-Fixing

How Do I get NS2? : 

Vacha Dave, University of Texas at Austin 17 How Do I get NS2? NS already Installed for us at: /u/yzhang/ns-allinone-2.27-oolsr-0.99.15/ns-2.27 NAM already installed at : /u/yzhang/ns-allinone-2.27-oolsr-0.99.15/nam-1.10 Add this to the PATH variable of your shell For tcsh, add the following lines to your ~/.cshrc file setenv PATH “/u/yzhang/ns-allinone-2.27-ooslr-0.99.15/ns-2.27:$PATH” setenv PATH “/u/yzhang/ns-allinone-2.27-ooslr-0.99.15/nam1.10:$PATH”

Outline : 

18 Outline What is it? How do I get it? How do I use it? How do I add to it? Documentation Bug-Fixing

How Do I use it? : 

19 How Do I use it? Creating a Simple Topology Getting Traces Using NAM

Basics of using NS2 : 

20 Basics of using NS2 Define Network topology, load, output files in Tcl Script To run, $ ns simple_network.tcl Internally, NS2 instantiates C++ classes based on the tcl scripts Output is in form of trace files

A simple Example – Creating the topology : 

21 A simple Example – Creating the topology n1 n2 Bandwidth:1Mbps Latency: 10ms

Creating the topology : 

Vacha Dave, University of Texas at Austin 22 #create a new simulator object set ns [new Simulator] #open the nam trace file set nf [open out.nam w] $ns namtrace-all $nf #define a 'finish' procedure proc finish {} { global ns nf $ns flush-trace #close the trace file close $nf #execute nam on the trace file exec nam out.nam & exit 0 } Creating the topology

Creating the topology (Contd) : 

23 Creating the topology (Contd) #create two nodes set n0 [$ns node] set n1 [$ns node] #create a duplex link between the nodes $ns duplex-link $n0 $n1 1Mb 10ms DropTail

Demo : 

24 Demo

Adding traffic : 

25 Adding traffic n1 n2 1Mbps,10ms udp null cbr Packet Size: 500 bytes rate: 800Kbps

Putting it together.. : 

Vacha Dave, University of Texas at Austin 26 Putting it together.. #create a udp agent and attach it to node n0 set udp0 [new Agent/UDP] $ns attach-agent $n0 $udp0 #Create a CBR traffic source and attach it to udp0 set cbr0 [new Application/Traffic/CBR] $cbr0 set packetSize_ 500 $cbr0 set interval_ 0.005 $cbr0 attach-agent $udp0 #create a Null agent(a traffic sink) and attach it to node n1 set null0 [new Agent/Null] $ns attach-agent $n1 $null0 #Connect the traffic source to the sink $ns connect $udp0 $null0 #Schedule events for CBR traffic $ns at 0.5 "$cbr0 start" $ns at 4.5 "$cbr0 stop" #call the finish procedure after 5 secs of simulated time $ns at 5.0 "finish" #run the simulation $ns run

Demo : 

27 Demo

A second Scenario * (from NS by Example) : 

28 A second Scenario * (from NS by Example) Taken from NS by Example by Jae ChungandMark Claypool

A second Example (From NS by Example) : 

29 A second Example (From NS by Example) #Create a simulator object set ns [new Simulator] #Define different colors for data flows (for NAM) $ns color 1 Blue $ns color 2 Red #Open the NAM trace file set nf [open out.nam w] $ns namtrace-all $nf #Define a 'finish' procedure proc finish {} { global ns nf $ns flush-trace #Close the NAM trace file close $nf #Execute NAM on the trace file exec nam out.nam & exit 0 }

A Second Scenario (Contd.) : 

30 A Second Scenario (Contd.) #Create four nodes set n0 [$ns node] set n1 [$ns node] set n2 [$ns node] set n3 [$ns node] #Create links between the nodes $ns duplex-link $n0 $n2 2Mb 10ms DropTail $ns duplex-link $n1 $n2 2Mb 10ms DropTail $ns duplex-link $n2 $n3 1.7Mb 20ms DropTail #Set Queue Size of link (n2-n3) to 10 $ns queue-limit $n2 $n3 10

A Second Scenario (Contd.) : 

31 A Second Scenario (Contd.) #Give node position (for NAM) $ns duplex-link-op $n0 $n2 orient right-down $ns duplex-link-op $n1 $n2 orient right-up $ns duplex-link-op $n2 $n3 orient right #Monitor the queue for link (n2-n3). (for NAM) $ns duplex-link-op $n2 $n3 queuePos 0.5

A Second Scenario (Contd.) : 

32 A Second Scenario (Contd.) #Setup a TCP connection set tcp [new Agent/TCP] $tcp set class_ 2 $ns attach-agent $n0 $tcp set sink [new Agent/TCPSink] $ns attach-agent $n3 $sink $ns connect $tcp $sink $tcp set fid_ 1 #Setup a FTP over TCP connection set ftp [new Application/FTP] $ftp attach-agent $tcp $ftp set type_ FTP To create agents or traffic sources, we need to know the class names these objects (Agent/TCP, Agent/TCPSink, Application/FTP and so on). This information can be found in the NS documentation. But one shortcut is to look at the "ns-2/tcl/libs/ns-default.tcl" file.

A Second Scenario (Contd.) : 

33 A Second Scenario (Contd.) #Setup a UDP connection set udp [new Agent/UDP] $ns attach-agent $n1 $udp set null [new Agent/Null] $ns attach-agent $n3 $null $ns connect $udp $null $udp set fid_ 2 #Setup a CBR over UDP connection set cbr [new Application/Traffic/CBR] $cbr attach-agent $udp $cbr set type_ CBR $cbr set packet_size_ 1000 $cbr set rate_ 1mb $cbr set random_ false

A Second Scenario (Contd.) : 

34 A Second Scenario (Contd.) #Schedule events for the CBR and FTP agents $ns at 0.1 "$cbr start" $ns at 1.0 "$ftp start" $ns at 4.0 "$ftp stop" $ns at 4.5 "$cbr stop" #Detach tcp and sink agents (not really necessary) $ns at 4.5 "$ns detach-agent $n0 $tcp ; $ns detach-agent $n3 $sink" #Call the finish procedure after 5 seconds of simulation time $ns at 5.0 "finish" #Print CBR packet size and interval puts "CBR packet size = [$cbr set packet_size_]" puts "CBR interval = [$cbr set interval_]" #Run the simulation $ns run

Demo : 

35 Demo

Outline : 

36 Outline What is it? How do I get it? How do I use it? How do I add to it? Documentation Bug-Fixing

How can I add to NS2? : 

37 How can I add to NS2? Adding Protocols to NS2 is possible Need to create the C++ class Need to create the OTcl Linkage More info at: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/tutorial/index.html Tutorial about how to add a simple protocol to NS2

Outline : 

38 Outline What is it? How do I get it? How do I use it? How do I add to it? Documentation Bug-Fixing

Documentation – NS2 Documentation : 

39 Documentation – NS2 Documentation NS2 Manual Information about Otcl interpreter, C++ class hierarchy, parameters for various protocols http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/doc/index.html Very detailed, useful when looking for something specific, like: What are the shadowing models available for wireless? How do I select them? How do I make my routing strategy to be Distance Vector routing?

Documentation – NS2 documentation : 

40 Documentation – NS2 documentation NS2 Tutorial by Marc Greis http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/tutorial/index.html Good starting point for understanding the overall structure of NS2 Examples: What is the relation between c++ classes and Otcl classes? basic info on instantiating NS2 instance, tcl scripting

Documentation – NS2 Documentation : 

41 Documentation – NS2 Documentation NS2 for beginners http://www-sop.inria.fr/maestro/personnel/Eitan.Altman/COURS-NS/n3.pdf More detailed than Marc Greis’ Tutorial More info on getting it up and running – rather than internals Examples: What does each line of a tcl script do? Most common examples of trace formats that are useful

Documentation – Tcl Documentation : 

42 Documentation – Tcl Documentation Tcl Tutorial http://www.tcl.tk/man/tcl8.5/tutorial/tcltutorial.html Tcl Manual All commands and their explanation http://www.tcl.tk/man/tcl8.6/TclCmd/contents.htm

Outline : 

43 Outline What is it? How do I get it? How do I use it? How do I add to it? Documentation Bug-Fixing

Bug-Fixing – When things go wrong.. : 

44 Bug-Fixing – When things go wrong.. Googling for the problem!  Extensive NS2 mailing lists Chances are that other people have had the same problem are very high Responsive forums

Bug-Fixing – When things go wrong.. : 

45 Bug-Fixing – When things go wrong.. NS2 in-built examples Extensive inbuilt examples “diffing” with the examples helps a lot Sometimes a good idea to start from a script that does something similar

Bug-Fixing – When things go wrong.. : 

46 Bug-Fixing – When things go wrong.. Taking a look at the code Everyone adds to NS2  May not always confirm to the norms IP TTL set to 32 instead of 256 

Bug-Fixing Questions : 

47 Bug-Fixing Questions What is the expected behaviour of the network? Have I connected the network right? Am I logging trace information at the right level? Can I change it to narrow down on the problem? Has anyone else out there had the same problem? Is there something similar in examples that I can look at, and build upon? Does the code really do what the protocol says? Are all the default parameters correct? Is Tcl being picky here? 