whole machine tool in a brief

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MACHINE SHOP:

MACHINE SHOP

Objectives :

Objectives Use the nomenclature of a cutting-tool point Explain the purpose of each type of rake and clearance angle Identify the applications of various types of cutting-tool materials Describe the cutting action of different types of machines

Cutting Tools:

Cutting Tools One of most important components in machining process Performance will determine efficiency of operation Two basic types (excluding abrasives) Single point and multi point Must have rake and clearance angles ground or formed on them

Cutting-Tool Materials:

Cutting-Tool Materials Lathe toolbits generally made of five materials High-speed steel Cast alloys (such as stellite) Cemented carbides Ceramics Cermets More exotic finding wide use Borazon and polycrystalline diamond

Lathe Toolbit Properties:

Lathe Toolbit Properties Hard Wear-resistant Capable of maintaining a red hardness during machining operation Red hardness: ability of cutting tool to maintain sharp cutting edge even when turns red because of high heat during cutting Able to withstand shock during cutting Shaped so edge can penetrate work

High-Speed Steel Toolbits:

High-Speed Steel Toolbits May contain combinations of tungsten, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, cobalt Can take heavy cuts, withstand shock and maintain sharp cutting edge under red heat Generally two types (general purpose) Molybdenum-base (Group M) Tungsten-base (Group T) Cobalt added if more red hardness desired

Cemented-Carbide Toolbits:

Cemented-Carbide Toolbits Capable of cutting speeds 3 to 4 times high-speed steel toolbits Low toughness but high hardness and excellent red-hardness Consist of tungsten carbide sintered in cobalt matrix Straight tungsten used to machine cast iron and nonferrous materials (crater easily) Different grades for different work

Coated Carbide Toolbits:

Coated Carbide Toolbits Made by depositing thin layer of wear-resistant titanium nitride, titanium carbide or aluminum oxide on cutting edge of tool Fused layer increases lubricity, improves cutting edge wear resistance by 200%-500% Lowers breakage resistance up to 20% Provides longer life and increased cutting speeds Titanium-coated offer wear resistance at low speeds, ceramic coated for higher speeds

Ceramic Toolbits:

Ceramic Toolbits Permit higher cutting speeds, increased tool life and better surface finish than carbide Weaker than carbide used in shock-free or low-shock situation Ceramic Heat-resistant material produced without metallic bonding agent such as cobalt Aluminum oxide most popular additive Titanium oxide or Titanium carbide can be added

Diamond Toolbits:

Diamond Toolbits Used mainly to machine nonferrous metals and abrasive nonmetallics Single-crystal natural diamonds High-wear but low shock-resistant factors Polycrystalline diamonds Tiny manufactured diamonds fused together and bonded to suitable carbide substrate

Cutting-Tool Nomenclature:

Cutting-Tool Nomenclature Cutting edge: leading edge of that does cutting Face: surface against which chip bears as it is separated from work Nose: Tip of cutting tool formed by junction of cutting edge and front face

Cutting-Tool Nomenclature:

Cutting-Tool Nomenclature Nose radius: radius to which nose is ground Size of radius will affect finish Rough turning: small nose radius (.015in) Finish cuts: larger radius (.060 to .125 in.) Point: end of tool that has been ground for cutting purposes

Cutting-Tool Nomenclature:

Cutting-Tool Nomenclature Base: Bottom surface of tool shank Flank: surface of tool adjacent to and below cutting edge Shank: body of toolbit or part held in toolholder

Lathe Toolbit Angles and Clearances:

Lathe Toolbit Angles and Clearances

Lathe Cutting-tool Angles:

Lathe Cutting-tool Angles Positive rake : point of cutting tool and cutting edge contact metal first and chip moves down the face of the toolbit Negative rake : face of cutting tool contacts metal first and chip moves up the face of the toolbit

Positive Rake Angle:

Positive Rake Angle Considered best for efficient removal of metal Creates large shear angle at shear zone Reduces friction and heat Allows chip to flow freely along chip-tool interface Generally used for continuous cuts on ductile materials not too hard or abrasive

Factors When Choosing Type and Rake Angle for Cutting Tool:

Factors When Choosing Type and Rake Angle for Cutting Tool Hardness of metal to be cut Type of cutting operation Continuous or interrupted Material and shape of cutting tool Strength of cutting edge

Shape of Chip:

Shape of Chip Altered in number of ways to improve cutting action and reduce amount of power required Continuous straight ribbon chip can be changed to continuous curled ribbon Changing angle of the keeness Included angle produced by grinding side rake Grinding chip breaker behind cutting edge of toolbit

Tool Life:

Tool Life Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Occurs on side of cutting edge as result of friction between side of cutting-tool edge and metal being machined When flank wear is .015 to .030 in. need to be reground Nose wear occurs as result of friction between nose and metal being machined Crater wear occurs as result of chips sliding along chip-tool interface, result of built-up edge on cutting tool

Factors Affecting the Life of a Cutting Tool:

Factors Affecting the Life of a Cutting Tool Type of material being cut Microstructure of material Hardness of material Type of surface on metal (smooth or scaly) Material of cutting tool Profile of cutting tool Type of machining operation being performed Speed, feed, and depth of cut

Turning:

Turning Assume cutting machine steel: If rake and relief clearance angles correct and proper speed and feed used, a continuous chip should be formed.

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Nomenclature of a Plain Milling Cutter

Nomenclature of an End Mill:

Nomenclature of an End Mill

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nomenclature of an End Mill

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Characteristics of a Drill Point Cutting-point angles for standard drill Chip formation of a drill

Operating Conditions and Tool Life :

Operating Conditions and Tool Life

Objectives :

Objectives Describe the effect of cutting conditions on cutting-tool life Explain the effect of cutting conditions on metal-removal rates State the advantages of new cutting-tool materials Calculate the economic performance and cost analysis for a machining operation

Operating Conditions:

Operating Conditions Three operating variables influence metal-removal rate and tool life Cutting speed Feed rate Depth of cut

Reduction in Tool Life:

Reduction in Tool Life Operating Conditions CUTTING SPEED + 50% FEED RATE + 50% DEPTH OF CUT + 50% 90% 60% 15%

General Operating Condition Rules:

General Operating Condition Rules Proper cutting speed most critical factor to consider establishing optimum conditions Too slow: Fewer parts produced, built-up edge Too fast: Tool breaks down quickly Optimum cutting speed should balance metal-removal rate and cutting-tool life Choose heaviest depth of cut and feed rate possible

Carbide Cutting Tools :

Carbide Cutting Tools

Objectives :

Objectives Identify and state the purpose of the two main types of carbide grades Select the proper grade of carbide for various workpiece materials Select the proper speeds and feeds for carbide tools

Carbide Cutting Tools:

Carbide Cutting Tools First used in Germany during WW II as substitute for diamonds Various types of cemented (sintered) carbides developed to suit different materials and machining operations Good wear resistance Operate at speeds ranging 150 to 1200 sf/min Can machine metals at speeds that cause cutting edge to become red hot without loosing harness

Blending:

Blending Five types of powders Tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, cobalt, tantalum carbide, niobium carbide One or combination blended in different proportions depending on grade desired Powder mixed in alcohol (24 to 190 h) Alcohol drained off Paraffin added to simplify pressing operation

Compaction:

Compaction Must be molded to shape and size Five different methods to compact powder Extrusion process Hot press Isostatic press Ingot press Pill press Green (pressed) compacts soft, must be presintered to dissolve paraffin Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Presintering:

Presintering Green compacts heated to about 1500 º F in furnace under protective atmosphere of hydrogen Carbide blanks have consistency of chalk May be machined to required shape 40% oversize to allow for shrinkage that occurs during final sintering

Sintering:

Sintering Last step in process Converts presintered machine blanks into cemented carbide Carried out in either hydrogen atmosphere or vacuum Temperatures between 2550 º and 2730º F Binder (cobalt) unites and cements carbide powders into dense structure of extremely hard carbide crystals

Cemented-Carbide Applications:

Cemented-Carbide Applications Used extensively in manufacture of metal-cutting tools Extreme hardness and good wear-resistance First used in machining operations as lathe cutting tools Majority are single-point cutting tools used on lathes and milling machines

Types of Carbide Lathe Cutting Tools:

Types of Carbide Lathe Cutting Tools Brazed-tip type Cemented-carbide tips brazed to steel shanks Wide variety of styles and sizes Indexable insert type Throwaway inserts Wide variety of shapes: triangular, square, diamond, and round Triangular: has three cutting edges Inserts held mechanically in special holder

Grades of Cemented Carbides:

Grades of Cemented Carbides Two main groups of carbides Straight tungsten carbide Contains only tungsten carbide and cobalt Strongest and most wear-resistant Used for machining cast iron and nonmetals Crater-resistant Contain titanium carbide and tantalum carbide in addition to tungsten carbide and cobalt Used for machining most steels

Tool Geometry:

Tool Geometry SIDE RELIEF SIDE CLEARANCE Terms adopted by ASME

Cutting-Tool Terms:

Cutting-Tool Terms Front, End, Relief (Clearance) Allows end of cutting tool to enter work Side Relief (Side) Permits side of tool to advance into work

Cutting Speeds and Feeds:

Cutting Speeds and Feeds Important factors that influence speeds, feeds, and depth of cut Type and hardness of work material Grade and shape of cutting tool Rigidity of cutting tool Rigidity of work and machine Power rating of machine

Cutting Fluids—Types and Applications :

Cutting Fluids—Types and Applications

Objectives :

Objectives State the importance and function of cutting fluids Identify three types of cutting fluids and state the purpose of each Apply cutting fluids efficiently for a variety of machining operations

Cutting Fluids:

Cutting Fluids Essential in metal-cutting operations to reduce heat and friction Centuries ago, water used on grindstones 100 years ago, tallow used (did not cool) Lard oils came later but turned rancid Early 20 th century saw soap added to water Soluble oils came in 1936 Chemical cutting fluids introduced in 1944

Economic Advantages to Using Cutting Fluids:

Economic Advantages to Using Cutting Fluids Reduction of tool costs Reduce tool wear, tools last longer Increased speed of production Reduce heat and friction so higher cutting speeds Reduction of labor costs Tools last longer and require less regrinding, less downtime, reducing cost per part Reduction of power costs Friction reduced so less power required by machining

Heat Generated During Machining:

Heat Generated During Machining Heat find its way into one of three places Workpiece, tool, chips Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Too much, work will expand Too much, cutting edge will break down rapidly, reducing tool life Act as disposable heat sink

Heat Dissipation :

Heat Dissipation Ideally most heat taken off in chips Indicated by change in chip color as heat causes chips to oxidize Cutting fluids assist taking away heat Can dissipate at least 50% of heat created during machining

Characteristics of a Good Cutting Fluid:

Characteristics of a Good Cutting Fluid Good cooling capacity Good lubricating qualities Resistance to rancidity Relatively low viscosity Stability (long life) Rust resistance Nontoxic Transparent Nonflammable

Types of Cutting Fluids:

Types of Cutting Fluids Most commonly used cutting fluids Either aqueous based solutions or cutting oils Fall into three categories Cutting oils Emulsifiable oils Chemical (synthetic) cutting fluids

Oil Categories:

Oil Categories Sulfurized mineral oils Contain .5% to .8% sulfur Light-colored and transparent Stains copper and alloys Sulfochlorinated mineral oils 3% sulfur and 1% chlorine Prevent excessive built-up edges from forming Sulfochlorinated fatty oil blends Contain more sulfur than other types

Inactive Cutting Oils:

Inactive Cutting Oils Oils will not darken copper strip immersed in them for 3 hours at 212 ºF Contained sulfur is natural Termed inactive because sulfur so firmly attached to oil – very little released Four general categories Straight mineral oils, fatty oils, fatty and mineral oil blends, sulfurized fatty-mineral oil blend

Emulsifiable (Soluble) Oils:

Emulsifiable (Soluble) Oils Mineral oils containing soaplike material that makes them soluble in water and causes them to adhere to workpiece Emulsifiers break oil into minute particles and keep them separated in water Supplied in concentrated form (1-5 /100 water) Good cooling and lubricating qualities Used at high cutting speeds, low cutting pressures

Functions of a Cutting Fluid:

Functions of a Cutting Fluid Prime functions Provide cooling Provide lubrication Other functions Prolong cutting-tool life Provide rust control Resist rancidity

Functions of a Cutting Fluid: Cooling:

Functions of a Cutting Fluid: Cooling Heat has definite bearing on cutting-tool wear Small reduction will greatly extend tool life Two sources of heat during cutting action Plastic deformation of metal Occurs immediately ahead of cutting tool Accounts for 2/3 to 3/4 of heat Friction from chip sliding along cutting-tool face Water most effective for reducing heat (rust)

Functions of a Cutting Fluid: Lubrication:

Functions of a Cutting Fluid: Lubrication Reduces friction between chip and tool face Shear plane becomes shorter Area where plastic deformation occurs correspondingly smaller Extreme-pressure lubricants reduce amount of heat-producing friction EP chemicals of synthetic fluids combine chemically with sheared metal of chip to form solid compounds (allow chip to slide)

Cutting-Tool Life:

Cutting-Tool Life Heat and friction prime causes of cutting-tool breakdown Reduce temperature by as little as 50 ºF, life of cutting tool increases fivefold Built-up edge Pieces of metal weld themselves to tool face Becomes large and flat along tool face, effective rake angle of cutting tool decreased

Application of Cutting Fluids:

Application of Cutting Fluids Cutting-tool life and machining operations influenced by way cutting fluid applied Copious stream under low pressure so work and tool well covered Inside diameter of supply nozzle ¾ width of cutting tool Applied to where chip being formed

Milling:

Milling Face milling Ring-type distributor recommended to flood cutter completely Keeps each tooth of cutter immersed in cutting fluid at all times Slab milling Fluid directing to both sides of cutter by fan-shaped nozzles ¾ width of cutter Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

LATHE MACHINE:

LATHE MACHINE

INTRODUCTION :

INTRODUCTION Lathe is one of the most important machine tools in the metal working industry. A lathe operates on the principle of a rotating workpiece and a fixed cutting tool. The cutting tool is feed into the workpiece, which rotates about its own axis, causing the workpiece to be formed to the desired shape. Lathe machine is also known as “the mother/father of the entire tool family”.

HISTORY:

HISTORY The lathe machine is one of the oldest and most important machine tools. As early as 1569, wood lathes were in use in France. The lathe machine was adapted to metal cutting in England during the Industrial Revolution. Lathe machine also called “Engine Lathe” because the first type of lathe was driven by a steam engine.

INVENTOR OF CENTRE LATHE:

INVENTOR OF CENTRE LATHE Henry Maudsley was born on an isolated farm near Gigghleswick in North Yorkshire and educated at University Collage London . He was an outstandingly brilliant medical student, collecting ten Gold Medals and graduating with an M.D. degree in 1857.

MAIN PARTS:

MAIN PARTS Lathe Machine is also known as “Centre Lathe”, because it has two centres between which the job can be held and rotated. The main parts of centre lathe are: Bed, Head stock, Tail stock, Carriage,etc

TYPES OF LATHE:

TYPES OF LATHE Engine Lathe The most common form of lathe, motor driven and comes in large variety of sizes and shapes. Bench Lathe A bench top model usually of low power used to make precision machine small work pieces. Tracer Lathe A lathe that has the ability to follow a template to copy a shape or contour.

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Automatic Lathe A lathe in which the work piece is automatically fed and removed without use of an operator. It requires very less attention after the setup has been made and the machine loaded. Turret Lathe Turret lathe is the adaptation of the engine lathe where the tail stock is replaced by a turret slide(cylindrical or hexagonal). Tool post of the engine lathe is replaced by a square cross slide which can hold four tools. Computer Controlled Lathe A highly automated lathe, where both cutting, loading, tool changing, and part unloading are automatically controlled by computer coding.

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ENGINE LATHE

LATHE OPERATIONS:

LATHE OPERATIONS Turning : to remove material from the outside diameter of a workpiece to obtain a finished surface . Facing : to produce a flat surface at the end of the workpiece or for making face grooves .   Boring : to enlarge a hole or cylindrical cavity made by a previous process or to produce circular internal grooves.   Drilling : to produce a hole on the workpiece. Reaming : to finishing the drilled hole. Threading : to produce external or internal threads on the workpiece.   Knurling : to produce a regularly shaped roughness on the workpiece.

LATHE OPERATIONS:

LATHE OPERATIONS

CUTTING TOOL:

CUTTING TOOL

WORK HOLDING DEVICES:

WORK HOLDING DEVICES

TYPES OF CHUCK:

TYPES OF CHUCK - Forholding cylindrical stock centered. - For facing/center drilling,etc. Three jaw chuck Four-Jaw Chuck - This is independent chuck generally has four jaws , which are adjusted individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws

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Thin jobs can be held by means of magnetic chucks. Collet Chuck Magnetic Chuck Collet chuck is used to hold small workpieces Thin jobs can be held by means of magnetic chucks.

DANGERS:

DANGERS Don’t touch cutter or chips while machine is running Make sure work is clamped tightly in chuck or collet. Be careful to stay clear of chuck jaws

SAFETY:

SAFETY All lathe operators must be constantly aware of the safety. Handle sharp cutters, centers, and drills with care. Remove chuck keys and wrenches before operating. Always wear protective eye protection. Always stop the lathe before making adjustments. Know where the emergency stop is before operating the lathe. Correct dress is important, remove rings and watches. Do not change spindle speeds until the lathe comes to a complete stop.

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF LATHE:

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF LATHE Lathes are highly accurate machine tools designed to operate around the clock if properly operated and maintained. Lathes must be lubricated and checked for adjustment before operation. Improper lubrication or loose nuts and bolts can cause excessive wear and dangerous operating conditions.

MILLING:

MILLING Milling is another basic machining process by which surface is generated progressively by the removal of chips from a work piece as it is fed against a rotating cutter. Milling operations can be classified into two broad categories 1. Peripheral Milling 2. Face Milling

Peripheral Milling :

Peripheral Milling

Peripheral Milling:

Peripheral Milling Operation performed by milling cutter to produce a machined surface parallel to axis of rotation of cutter Cutting force is not uniform throughout the length of the cut by each tooth Quality of surface generated and shape of the chip formed depends upon the rotation of cutter relative to direction of feed movement It can be either UP milling or DOWN milling

Up milling:

Up milling Also called conventional milling, - Wheel rotation opposite of the feed - The chip formed by each cutter tooth starts out very thin and increases its thickness - The length of the chip is relatively longer - Tool life is relatively shorter - Need more clamping force to hold the work part still.

Down milling: :

Down milling: Also called climb milling , - Wheel rotation is parallel to the feed - The chip formed by each cutter tooth starts out thick and leaves out thin - The length of the chip is relatively short - Tool life is relatively longer - Need less clamping force to hold the work part still.

Face Milling :

Face Milling

Face Milling:

Face Milling The generated surface is at right angles to the cutter axis It is the combined result of actions of the portions of the teeth located on both periphery and the face of the cutter Most of the cutting is done by the peripheral portions of the teeth, with the face portions provides the surface finish.

MILLING MACHINES:

MILLING MACHINES

Milling Machines:

Milling Machines The milling machine supplies an accurate rotating spindle for the cutter and a table (vise) to fix and position the work part. Types of Milling Machines are -: Column & Knee Type Fixed Bed Type Planer Type Special Type

Column & Knee Milling Machine:

Column & Knee Milling Machine General purpose Column, spindle, cutter, table, knee, base are the common parts of the vertical and horizontal milling machines The milling machines having only the three mutually perpendicular table motions (x-y-z axes) are called plain column and knee type Vertical type is especially well suited for face and end milling operations

Horizontal Milling Machine:

Horizontal Milling Machine In horizontal, arbor supports the cutter and an over arm supports arbor The vertical column houses the electrical, main drive, spindles etc mounted on a heavy base

Vertical Milling Machine:

Vertical Milling Machine In vertical, milling cutters can be mounted directly in the spindle Housing (Head) can be fixed or Swiveling type Fixed Type - Head is always vertical and can be adjusted up and down Swiveling Type – Head can be swiveled to any desired angle

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Universal Milling Machine Has a table that can be rotated in a horizontal plane to any specified angle

Bed Type Milling Machine:

Bed Type Milling Machine

Continue...:

Continue... Bed Type Milling Machines : Designed for mass production Achieves heavier feed rates and depth of cuts, high MRR Work table is directly fixed on the bed of the machine tool The cutter mounted in a spindle head that can be adjusted vertically along the machine column Three types are available w.r.t. the count of spindles available

Simplex :

Simplex Fixed bed replaces saddle and knee. The table has longitudinal travel only Spindle head carries spindle to which arbor is fitted to carry cutter that moves up and down along column ways

Continue...:

Continue... Duplex: Has two spindles, permitting simultaneous milling of two surfaces at a single pass Triplex: Has three spindles, permitting simultaneous milling of three surfaces at a single pass

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Planer type milling machines

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Consists of a fixed bed carrying a table having longitudinal movements Consists of 2 vertical columns on each side of the bed Cross rail fitter across columns can be raised or lowered Each column carries a milling head(side/horizontal) moving upwards or downwards All cutters can be operated simultaneously to machine 4 surfaces at a time

Continue...:

Continue... CNC Milling Machines Cutter path controlled by numerical data Suited to profile, pocket, surface contouring.

Milling Operations :

Milling Operations

1. Plain Milling(Slab Milling) :

1. Plain Milling(Slab Milling) Operation of production of plane flat surface parallel to axis of rotation of plain milling cutter Cutter width extends beyond the work piece on both sides

2. Face Milling :

2. Face Milling The face milling cutter is rotated about an axis perpendicular to the work surface

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More Examples on Face Milling

3. End Milling :

3. End Milling Combination of peripheral and face milling Cutter has teeth both on end face and periphery Vertical milling machine is most suitable for end milling operation

4. Side Milling :

4. Side Milling Operation of production of flat vertical surface on side of work piece by using side milling cutter Depth of cut adjusted by rotating vertical feed screw of the table

5. Straddle Milling :

5. Straddle Milling Operation of production of flat vertical surfaces on both side of the workpiece by using two side milling cutters mounted on the same arbor

6. Angular Milling :

6. Angular Milling Operation of production of angular surface on a workpiece other than at right angles to the axis of milling machine spindle

7. Gang Milling :

7. Gang Milling Operation of milling several surfaces of the workpiece simultaneously by feeding the table against a number of cutters having same or different diameters

8. Form Milling :

8. Form Milling It is the operation of production of irregular contours using form cutters The contours maybe convex, concave or any other shape

9. Profile Milling :

9. Profile Milling It is the operation of reproduction of an outline of a template or complex shape of a master die on a workpiece

10.Milling Keyways, Grooves & Slots :

10.Milling Keyways, Grooves & Slots Operation of production of keys, grooves and slots of varying shapes and size by using a plane milling cutter, a metal slitting saw, an end mill or by side milling cutter

11. Thread Milling :

11. Thread Milling Operation of production of threads by using a single or multiple thread milling cutter. It is performed in special thread milling machine to produce accurate threads

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DRILLING MACHINE

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TYPES OF DRILLING MACHINE Portable Drilling Machine 2) Sensitative Drilling Machine 3)Upright Drilling Machine 4)Radial Drilling Machine 5)Gang Drilling Machine 6)Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine 7)Automatic Drilling Machine 8)Deep Hole Drilling Machine

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Portable Drilling Machine

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It can be work at any position and any where Machine is operated by hand power. This machine contain small motor. It having high speed and small drilling size. The diameter of hole do not contain more than 12 to 18 mm size

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Sensitive Drilling Machine

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of sensitive drilling machine It is having mainly two types 1)Bench mounting 2)Flour mounting

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This machine is designed for drilling a small hole and at high speed in light job. It can not contain arrangement of automatic feed mechanisms. The drill is purely feed into the work by hand control . This machine are capable rotating drill of diameter from 1.5 to 15.5 mm The speed of rotating drill is 2000 r.p.m.

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Upright Drilling Machine

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This type of machine having also two types 1)Round column section 2)Box column section

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Radial Drilling Machine

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Types of radial drilling machine A) Plain Radial Drilling machine B) Semiuniversal drilling machine C) Universal Drilling machine

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Gang drilling machine

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Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine

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Automatic Drilling Machine

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Deep Hole Drilling Machine

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Types of Deep hole Drilling Machine A) Vertical B) Horizontal

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Drilling Machine operations 1) Drilling 2)Reaming 3)Boring 4)Counterboring 5)Countersinking 6)Spot facing 7)Tapping 8)Lapping 9)Grinding 10)Trepanning

Shaper Machine:

Shaper Machine

Shaper Machine:

Shaper Machine Process of removing metal from surface by the use of a single point cutting tool held in ram that reciprocates the tool in a linear direction across the work piece held on the table of the machine

Types of Shaper Machine:

Types of Shaper Machine Horizontal Shaper Machine Ram along with tool moves in Horizontal Direction Vertical Shaper Machine Ram along with tool moves in Vertical Direction

Components of a Shaper Machine:

Components of a Shaper Machine Base Column Table Ram Tool head

Tool head:

Tool head

Driving Mechanism in Shaper Machine:

Driving Mechanism in Shaper Machine Mechanical Ram Drive Automatic Feed Motion Hydraulic Drive

Mechanical Ram Drive:

Mechanical Ram Drive

Automatic Feed Drive:

Automatic Feed Drive

Hydraulic Drive:

Hydraulic Drive

Advantages of Hydraulic Drive:

Advantages of Hydraulic Drive Offer Great Flexibility of speed Smoother Operation Ability to slip when tool is overloaded Ability to change length and position of stroke, while machine is running

Slotting Machine :

Slotting Machine

Slotter Machine:

Slotter Machine

Types of Slotters:

Types of Slotters Puncher Slotter Production Slotter Tool room Slotter

Drive Mechanism in Slotter Machine:

Drive Mechanism in Slotter Machine Same as in Shaper machine, Slotter machine also have Hydraulic Drive Slotted Disc Mechanism

Slotted Disc Drive:

Slotted Disc Drive

Operations done in Slotter:

Operations done in Slotter Machining flat surface Machining cylindrical surface Machining irregular surface and cam machining Machining slots, keyways and grooves

Surfaces Machined in Slotter and Shaper Machines:

Surfaces Machined in Slotter and Shaper Machines

Planer Machine:

Planer Machine

Components of a Planer Machine:

Components of a Planer Machine Bed Table Housing Cross rail Tool heads

Types of Planer Machines:

Types of Planer Machines Double Housing Planer Open Side Planer Planer Miller Pit type Planer

Double House Planer :

Double House Planer

Open Slide Planer:

Open Slide Planer

Drive Mechanism:

Drive Mechanism Hydraulic Drive Variable Speed Motor

Work Holding Devices in Shaper, Slotter and Planer Machines:

Work Holding Devices in Shaper, Slotter and Planer Machines

Cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut in Planer, Shaper and Slotting Machine:

Cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut in Planer, Shaper and Slotting Machine Cutting Speed, V = L*N(1+K)/1000 m/min Where L = Length of arm stroke, mm N = Number of full strokes/ min full stroke means Working and return stroke K = Ratio of return time to cutting time

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Feed f, in planing, shaping and slotting is relative movement of the tool in a direction perpendicular to primary cutting motion per full stroke , mm/stroke Depth of Cut d, is the thickness of layer removed in one cut Cross Sectional area of undeformed chip = t * b = f* d f = feed d = depth of cut

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