Introduction to Management : Introduction to Management Course Instructor: Kanwal Gurleen
Lecturer, LSB 2,3 Learning Objectives : Learning Objectives Historical Background of Management
Explain why studying management history is important.
Describe some early evidences of management practice.
Describe the important contributions made by Fredrick W. Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.
Explain how today’s managers use scientific management. Slide 3: General Administrative Theory
Discuss Fayol’s contributions to management theory.
Describe Max Weber’s contribution to management theory.
Explain how today’s managers use general administrative theory.
Explain what the quantitative approach has contributed to the field of management.
Discuss how today’s managers use the quantitative approach. Learning Objectives Slide 4: Toward Understanding Organizational Behavior
Describe the contributions of the early advocates of OB.
Explain the contributions of the Hawthorne Studies to the field of management.
Discuss how today’s managers use the behavioral approach.
The Systems Approach
Describe an organization using the systems approach.
Discuss how the systems approach helps us management. Learning Objectives Slide 5: The Contingency Approach
Explain how the contingency approach differs from the early theories of management.
Discuss how the contingency approach helps us understand management.
Current Issues and Trends
Explain why we need to look at the current trends and issues facing managers.
Describe the current trends and issues facing managers. Learning Objectives Historical Background of Management : Historical Background of Management Ancient Management
Egypt (pyramids) and China (Great Wall)
Venetians (floating warship assembly lines)
Published “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776
Advocated the division of labor (job specialization) to increase the productivity of workers
Substituted machine power for human labor
Created large organizations in need of management Exhibit 2–1 Development of Major Management Theories : Exhibit 2–1 Development of Major Management Theories Major Approaches to Management : Major Approaches to Management Scientific Management
General Administrative Theory
Contingency Approach Scientific Management : Scientific Management Fredrick Winslow Taylor
The “father” of scientific management
Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
The theory of scientific management
Using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done:
Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment.
Having a standardized method of doing the job.
Providing an economic incentive to the worker. Exhibit 2–2 Taylor’s Four Principles of Management : Exhibit 2–2 Taylor’s Four Principles of Management Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method.
Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker.
Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed.
Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers. Scientific Management (cont’d) : Scientific Management (cont’d) Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Focused on increasing worker productivity through the reduction of wasted motion
Developed the microchronometer to time worker motions and optimize work performance
How Do Today’s Managers Use Scientific Management?
Use time and motion studies to increase productivity
Hire the best qualified employees
Design incentive systems based on output General Administrative Theory : General Administrative Theory Henri Fayol
Believed that the practice of management was distinct from other organizational functions
Developed fourteen principles of management that applied to all organizational situations Exhibit 2–3 Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management : Exhibit 2–3 Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management Division of work.
Unity of command.
Unity of direction.
Subordination of individual interests to the general interest. Remuneration.
Stability of tenure of personnel.
Esprit de corps. Quantitative Approach to Management : Quantitative Approach to Management Quantitative Approach
Also called operations research or management science
Evolved from mathematical and statistical methods developed to solve WWII military logistics and quality control problems Understanding Organizational Behavior : Understanding Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior (OB)
The study of the actions of people at work; people are the most important asset of an organization
Early OB Advocates
Mary Parker Follett
Chester Barnard Slide 16: Exhibit 2–5 Early Advocates of OB The Hawthorne Studies : A series of productivity experiments conducted at Western Electric from 1927 to 1932.
Productivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverse working conditions.
The effect of incentive plans was less than expected.
Social norms, group standards and attitudes more strongly influence individual output and work behavior than do monetary incentives. The Hawthorne Studies The Systems Approach : The Systems Approach System Defined
A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.
Basic Types of Systems
Are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment (all system input and output is internal).
Dynamically interact to their environments by taking in inputs and transforming them into outputs that are distributed into their environments. Exhibit 2–6 The Organization as an Open System : Exhibit 2–6 The Organization as an Open System Implications of the Systems Approach : Implications of the Systems Approach Coordination of the organization’s parts is essential for proper functioning of the entire organization.
Decisions and actions taken in one area of the organization will have an effect in other areas of the organization.
Organizations are not self-contained and, therefore, must adapt to changes in their external environment. The Contingency Approach : The Contingency Approach Contingency Approach Defined
Also sometimes called the situational approach.
There is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations.
Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing. Exhibit 2–7 Popular Contingency Variables : Exhibit 2–7 Popular Contingency Variables Organization size
As size increases, so do the problems of coordination.
Routineness of task technology
Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems that differ from those required by customized or nonroutine technologies.
What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment.
Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations. Current Trends and Issues : Current Trends and Issues Globalization
Quality Management Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) : Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) Globalization
Management in international organizations
Political and cultural challenges of operating in a global market
Working with people from different cultures
Coping with anticapitalist backlash
Movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor
Increased emphasis on ethics education in college curriculums
Increased creation and use of codes of ethics by businesses Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) : Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) Workforce Diversity
Increasing heterogeneity in the workforce
More gender, minority, ethnic, and other forms of diversity in employees
Older employees who work longer and do not retire
The increased costs of public and private benefits for older workers
An increasing demand for products and services related to aging. Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) : Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) Entrepreneurship Defined
The process of starting new businesses, generally in response to opportunities.
Pursuit of opportunities
Innovation in products, services, or business methods
Desire for continual growth of the organization Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) : Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) E-Business (Electronic Business)
The work preformed by an organization using electronic linkages to its key constituencies
E-commerce: the sales and marketing aspect of an e-business
Categories of E-Businesses
E-business enhanced organization
E-business enabled organization
Total e-business organization Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) : Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) Learning Organization
An organization that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change.
The cultivation of a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather and share knowledge with others in order to achieve better performance. Exhibit 2–10 Learning Organization versus Traditional Organization : Exhibit 2–10 Learning Organization versus Traditional Organization Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) : Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) Quality Management
A philosophy of management driven by continual improvement in the quality of work processes and responding to customer needs and expectations
Inspired by the total quality management (TQM) ideas of Deming and Juran
Quality is not directly related to cost
Poor quality results in lower productivity Terms to Know : Terms to Know division of labor (or job specialization)
general administrative theory
principles of management
organizational behavior (OB)
system closed systems
e-business (electronic business)
e-commerce (electronic commerce)
quality management Else is what? : Else is what? This presentation will be uploaded by 9 pm tonight on www.kanwalgurleen.blogspot.com