Genetic testing in trees,mating design,tree improvement, tree testing

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Slide 2: 

Tree improvement increases the value of a tree species by 1) selecting the most desirable trees from natural stands or plantations, 2) breeding or mating these select trees and 3) testing the resulting progeny.

Slide 3: 

Once trees are selected their genetic worth should be improved The offspring are then established in genetic tests. Genetic testing is mandatory for any aggressive and successful tree improvement program.

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1) Provide genetic information about the select parent trees 2) Provide an improved population of trees from which the next generation of select trees is made

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No single genetic testing will be best to satisfy all of the objectives. The ideal is to design tests specifically to accomplish on one objectives. Because of cost and manpower restriction Necessary to try to satisfy several objectives in the same test. This presents a real challenge to the tree breeder Challenge in testing

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It is to be used to create the progeny population The nature and importance of genotype-environment interaction 1.Choice of mating design 2.Field test design

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The system of crossing, which is used to develop progenies It specifies exactly how parents are intimated to created the offspring that are planted The pattern of pollinations set up between individuals for an artificial crossing program

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Incomplete 1.Open pollinated 2.Polycross (pollen mix) Nested Factorial Single pair Full diallel Half diallel Partial diallel

Incomplete Pedigree design : 

Incomplete Pedigree design Open pollinate mating design- Allowed to mate at random through open pollination Seed collected from mother tree are kept separate by family Advantage General combining ability estimated- roguing poor family Advanced generation selection can be made Can provide additive genetic variance and heritability value Disadvantage Specific combining ability between male and female cannot estimated Limited use for future generation of selection Possibility of selfing Breeding depression

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Poly cross (pollen mix) mating design Artificial pollination with mixture of pollen of males unrelated to any of candidate females or to each other Number of male parents selected not less than 10 Advantage Estimate general combining ability Good estimate of realized and expected gain Provides heritability & breeding values of female parents Least costly than open pollinated design Disadvantage Difficult to calculate specific combining ability Estimation of breeding value may be unfair due to non random pollination by pollens In advanced generation, selection from polycross mated design is difficult

Complete Pedigree Design : 

Complete Pedigree Design Nested design Known as hierarchical mating design In which group of parents of one sex are mated to other sex Breeder can estimate both additive, non additive variance 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 2 3 M a l e p a r e n t s F e m a l e p a r e n t s

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Members of one sex are crossed in all combination with several members of other sex 4-6 chosen as male (tester) & allow to mate all other female trees It also known as tester design Generates unrelated families but not more than 6 Estimation of- 1) variance among male & female parent 2) gca & sca Suitable for advance-generation selection

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Lay-out of factorial design Forest tree breeding- paramathama & paramathama et al.

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Each parent is mated to another member of population only once Each parent is involved in single cross Completely avoidance of inbreeding Limited application in forestry Only used genetically proven parents Useful in producing population for advance-generation selection (Zobel & Talberts 1984) Used in improving the genetic resistance in Abies pindrow to Armillarea mella root rot (Pherson and Jenkin,1994)

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Lay-out of single pair 10 parents (clone) are mated in single pair fashion requiring 5 crosses

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Completely (full) diallel mating design In which all parent is crossed to all other in every combination It involves direct crosses, reciprocal crosses and selfed parents All possible combination of crosses Parents may be individuals, clones, homozygous line, open pollinated varieties It involves direct crosses, reciprocal crosses and selfed parents 1 to 6 - diagonal are selfed Yellow crosses- direct Green – reciprocal crosses

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Half-diallel mating design It is similar to full diallels Each parent is mated with every other parent in the population, excluding selfs and reciprocal: Reciprocal crosses are not included Advantages- Estimate of gca and sca Less expensive than full diallel Disadvantages May not be accurate as a full diallel Requires extra care for handling X – direct crosses

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Most use full other modification of the diallels have been developed These are called partial diallel Systematic or progressive mating scheme Cross are made that fall on particular diagonals

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After progeny have been created the step in genetic testing is to establish the seed lots in field Genetic and environmental effect on progeny performance can be assessed. Many different type of experimental designs are available for use by the forest tree breeder.

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A group of a trees of a single family treated as a unit in a tree breeding experiment. In most experiment trees within a plot are planted adjacent to one another. Seed lots must be planted in an experiment to estimate genetic and environmental effect on progeny performance.

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1.Rectangular plots It have many trees from the same genetic entry planted in a square or rectangular arrangement 2.Row plots It also called line plots It contain two or more trees of the same entry planted in a row.

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3.Single tree plots(STP) Each tree is a plot So each genetic entry is represented by a single tree within each complete block 4.Non contiguous plots(NCP) It have multiple trees from the same family or clone Randomized with in each block rather than being planted in rows or rectangular plots

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1.Completely random design Two or more plots of the seed lots to be tested are distributed at random throughout the test area. So that each seed lots can encounter the range of environmental condition of the test site. It is easy to analyze statistically, and they work well when the test area is very uniform.

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Each family or seed lots is represented by a single plot in a test subunit called a replication or block . The purpose of blocking are to adjust for different environmental condition on the test site statistically. Differences that occur among replications indicate the degree of environmental variation It is used more frequently

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This are not easy to implement, maintain and analyze in field situation where control are difficult. This design is generally used in special situation such as in nursery bed, greenhouse or in special experiments A. Latin square design The test site divided in to rows and columns one plot of each seed lots is planted in each rows and in each column.

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B. Balanced incomplete-block design or lattice design Replication of equal size are established, but Each replication contain fewer than total number of seed lots involved in the test. C.Split plot design It is necessary to test two or more type of seedlots in one test It is also used where environmental treatment are to be superimposed on the experiment

Slide 30: 

Success depends on the ability to properly install the test in the field. If it is improperly installed or maintained results will not be satisfactory. There is no way to adjust poorly installed test. Most genetic tests employ randomized complete-block design

Factor involved in genetic testing : 

Factor involved in genetic testing

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After implementation of the appropriate mating and experimental designs The next step is proper analysis and interpretation of the measurement obtained.

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Source of variation- which part of the total test variation is being accounted for in that line of the analysis. Degree of freedom-indicates the number of independently variable classes.

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Mean square -all of the variation that has contributed to the observed differences for that effect. It is used to test for the statistical significance of an effect Expected mean square - relative contributions of each type of variance to each mean square.

Individual tree heritability : 

Individual tree heritability Variance components used to estimated the heritability. Narrow sense heritability- The ratio of additive genetic variance to phenotypic variance Broad sense heritability- The ratio of all of the genetic variation to the phenotypic variance.

Genotype × environment interaction : 

Genotype × environment interaction A tree’s phenotype is determined by both its genetic constitution, or genotype and environment where, P = phenotype G = genotype E = environment.

Slide 40: 

Provenance variation in P. juliora (Provenance No. 1-Etawah, 2-Kanpur, 3-Local=Banthra, 4-Makdoompur, 5-Mathura, 6-Israel, 7-Oxford). Genetic selection and improvement of hard wood tree species for fuelwood production on particular reference to Prosopis juliora V.L. Goel, H.M. Behl Department of Tree Biology, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow- India

Reference : 

Reference Bruce zobel, John Talbert (1984).Applied Forest Tree Improvement pg(232-260)

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