Wood seasoning

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Slide 1: 

Wood seasoning & preservation techniques of mango and neem Presented by N.KANAGARAJ BSF-06-007 BSC[FORESTRY]

Seasoning Behavior of mango wood : 

Seasoning Behavior of mango wood Refratoriness - C F.S.P % -22.0% Kiln schedule -ii shrinkage% green to oven dry: Radial -3.0 Tangential -4.9 Volumetric -7.3

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Class-c:non refractory woods These can be rapidly seasoned free from defects. If not dried rapidly they develop discoloration and mould on the surface.

Air seasoning : 

Air seasoning SHED TYPE-3: This consists of a roof supported on pillars all side being open. This is suitable for drying timber for very moist climate condition. Depending upon the thickness of timber processing time -3monthes and above

KILN SEASONING : 

KILN SEASONING The timber comes under standard kiln drying schedule -2. These timber will take about 5to7 days to season. Initial steaming of the charge for about 2hrs at 55*c and 100% RH should be carried out to kill mould growth.

WOOD WASTE FIRED FURNASE KILN : 

WOOD WASTE FIRED FURNASE KILN Wood waste fired furnace kilns are used on a limited basis. Heat is generated from furnaces fires by wood waste. They are not suited for seasoning all kinds of woods

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Limitations: Poorer temperature control Absence of an efficient humidification system. e.g : MANGO, SALAI&SEMUL

FRI solar heated kilns : 

FRI solar heated kilns These are the most popular and widely used kilns in India. They are easy to fabricate and operate. Initial mc - 43.1 Final moisture-12 No of days taken-65

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CCA   --  Copper Sulphate, Potassium or Sodium Dichromate, Boric Acid  --  Boric acid and Borax Equivalent, Cashew nut shell liquid(CSNL), Creosote oil. PRESERVATIVES

Defects due to conversion : 

Defects due to conversion Chip mark Diagonal grain Torn grain Wane

Defects due to fungi : 

Defects due to fungi The moisture content of the timber is above 20%.There is presence of air and warm for the growth of fungi Following defects are caused in timber by fungi Blue stain Brown rot Dry rot Heart rot Sap stain Wet rot White rot

Defects due to insects : 

Defects due to insects Beetles Marine Borers Termites

Termites : 

Termites Dry wood termite Termite nest

Use : 

Use Packing case Planks are used for construction purpose

Neem : 

Neem Among the wood species that could be examined, neem (Azadirachta indica) stands prominent. Research carried out by Radwanski (1969) in Sokoto (Northern Nigeria) revealed that Azadirachta indica is a fast growing tree which can be planted in arid regions as it is not requiring irrigation. It grows well in poor, shallow, stony or sandy lands. These qualities make this wood species to be easily adaptable to the climatic conditions of Northern Nigeria. However, there is apparent information gap as to the density of neem in relation to timber fabrication and utilization with particular reference to Northern Nigeria.

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This research becomes particularly important in Northern Nigeria, as the economic wood species used for constructional purposes in Northern Nigeria are very limited The significant portion of timber for furniture and other building constructions is obtained from Southern Nigeria, The procurement and transport arrangements are beset with some obvious difficulties that must be overcome to hold down the escalating price.

Slide 18: 

Neem density, at an average of 682.39 Kg/m3, shows that wood species density agrees with the general range of wood densities as published by Desch (1992), who recorded a density variation of 160kg/m3 to 1250kg/m3 among tree species. This density value is favourably compared with majority of known economic trees commonly used for timber in Nigeria. PRESERVATIVES

Seasoning duration : 

Seasoning duration Steam kiln seasoning - 25 days, Solar kiln seasoning - 42 days, Air seasoning - 76days, Thick ness - 75*100mm.

Preservation method : 

Preservation method Cold soaking in solutions of creosote or penta has been moderately effective in treating roundstock of species with thick, easily treated sapwood, Cold soaking should not be used when heartwood is exposed. Normal soaking times vary from 24 to 48 hours and there is little control over retention and penetration.

Use of neem wood : 

Use of neem wood Dining table and chir,desk&chair Making a pillars,columes&beams Making sculpture

Reference : 

Reference Panday L.N, v.k jain wood seasoning and technology published by Indian council of forestry research and education , dehradun http://www.jgi.doe.gov http://www.calredwood.org http://muextension.missouri.edu/forestry http://www.monarchprocess.com/

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Thank u

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