Pterocarpus santalinus

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Silvicultural characters of Pterocarpus santalinus : 

Silvicultural characters of Pterocarpus santalinus N.KANAGARAJ BSF-06-007 BSC[FORESTRY]

Pterocarpus santalinus : 

Pterocarpus santalinus Trade Name (Tamil, English, Hindi) Tamil- Chivappu chandanam. English- Red sandal wood Hindi- Lal chandan Family: Leguminosae( Papilionioideae )

Geographical Distribution : 

Geographical Distribution Pterocarpus native to India It is most commonly found in south and south-western India, notably in the state of Karnataka, Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, and Chingleput in Tamil Nadu. And the forests are classified by champion and Seth (1961) under southern tropical dry deciduous forest. It is endemic to Cuddapah and Chittoor districts and in some parts of Nellore district. Recommended for plantation on lateritic loam, quartzite shale and lime stone. It requires perfect drainage and is found mainly on stony or gravelly soils.

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Habit It is a light-demanding small tree growing to 8 m tall with a trunk 50–150 cm diameter. It is fast-growing . It is not frost tolerant, being killed by temperatures of -1 °C. Large deciduous tree. The fruit is a pod 6–9 cm long containing one or two seeds. Habitat In its natural habit, the absolute max temperature is being 46.1 degree. The mean annual rainfall in its habit varies from 350 to 1350mm. The trees grow typically a dry, hilly often rocky terrain at elevation of 150-900m. Its extensive root system contributes to its resistance to drought and wind.

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Phenology Tropical dry deciduous forest. Flowering: Flowers in yellow terminal panicles appear in April (immediately after leaf-fall) to May. Pod maturity takes about 11 months after flower opening. Fruiting: Pods are formed rapidly but get ripened in next February – March. The dry pods are collected in between April to June.

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Nursery Techniques The dry pods weigh 900 to 1400 to a kg. Soaking the pods in cold water for 3 days enhance the germinative capacity to a large extent. After one year, stumps can be prepared which are put in polybags in February to March, to be utilized after 4-5 months as stump sprouted seedlings. Germination Percentage is 50 to 60 Plant Percentage is about 30 to 40

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Plantation Techniques The stump planting gives the highest percentage of survival (87%) and 20% for direct sowing and 13% by entire transplanting. No of seedling per kg is 270 to 560. Standard size beds of 12m*1.2m raised above the ground are prepared, the sides being supported by split bamboos. 25% germination takes place within 20-25 days. Seedling made into stumps. Spacing: 2.2m*2.2m. Tending: The plantation requires weeding during the first few years. The no of weeding in case of the patch sowing is 3-4 in 1st year. Regular thinning is also necessary to promote the best growth to provide abundant space for its growth.

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Cultural Operations Seedlings also need protection from grazing animals. Mulching can prevent loss of soil moisture At least occasional watering is done during summers in case of newly planted plants for their proper survival and establishment. They are very responsive to weeding and soil- working. Fertigation It requires both the organic and inorganic fertilizer. Because of the native species it requires nitrogen and as well as phosphorus.

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Rotation/yield The Rotation age is 10 or 25 years. Economic yield The plant is renowned for its characteristic timber of exquisite colour, beauty and superlative technical qualities The red wood yields a natural dye santalin The timber is highly prized for house posts. Small pieces carved into dolls and images. The wood is in treating headache, skin diseases, fever, boils, scorpion sting and to improve sight. The wood and fruit is used in treating diaphoretics, bilious infections and chronic dysentery. Heart wood is known to possess isoflavone glucosidessavinin, calocedrin and triterpene.

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Chemical Compounds : Ether, alkalis, and three other crystalline principles Santal, Pterocarpin, and Homopterocarpin, small quantity of tannin probably kino-tannic acid, have also been found in the wood. Pest & Diseases: Defoliator during summer. Caterpillar of pyrallidae attack poles generally at the fork of the tree. Young plantation is badly affected by climber.

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