Direct and Indirect Speech

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The types and the use

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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH : 

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH By: Kamaludin Secondary School Teacher, Negara-Bali

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH : 

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH CHARACTERISTICS: It is original quotation of a talk It is always placed between two quotation marks It is always preceded by Capital letter

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Colon (:), Comma (,) are placed before direct speech when the introductory verb position is in the front Comma (,) are placed after direct speech when the introductory verb position is placed after or between the direct speech

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The use of punctuation like exclamation mark (!), question mark (?) that point type of sentence of direct speech do not change Eg. - ‘Where do you live?’ she asked - My mother says to my sister: ‘Wash your hands!’ - She yelled at me: ‘Don’t have the door open!’

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INDIRECT SPEECH It is a kind of report sentence (reported speech) It retells one’s talk or idea It undergoes certain modification

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It has three types of indirect speech 1. Imperative (Command/request) 2. Declarative (Statement) 3. Interrogative (question

1. Imperative (Command/request) : 

1. Imperative (Command/request) The reported is a command Because of a command so that it does not know subject The verb in direct imperative does not change

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- Imperative has contain verb 1 like go, sleep, open etc so in the indirect speech is preceded by to infinitive) namely to go, to sleep, to open

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It also has non verb, so the reported command is preceded by ‘Be + adjective/adverb!’ like: be quiet, be happy, be here so in the Indirect Speech it becomes to be quiet, to be happy, to be here

POSITIVE IMPERATIVE: : 

POSITIVE IMPERATIVE:

NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE: : 

NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE:

Declarative (Statement) : 

Declarative (Statement) A. Pronoun and Possessive adjective DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH I He/She You me/he/she/them/I/him/her My his/her Our their/our Your My/his/her

Declarative (Statement) : 

Declarative (Statement) B. Adverb of time and Place DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH now then today that day tomorrow the next day the day after the following day a day later next the … after the following …

Declarative (Statement) : 

Declarative (Statement) B. Adverb of time and Place DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH last … the … before the previous … the preceding … … ago … before … earlier yesterday the day before the previous day the preceeding day the day before yesterday two days before here there this that these those

Declarative (Statement) : 

Declarative (Statement) C. Tenses DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Present Simple Past Simple Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous

Declarative (Statement) : 

Declarative (Statement) C. Tenses DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Future Simple Past Future Future Continuous Past Future Continuous Future Perfect Past Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous Past Future Perfect Continuous

Declarative (Statement) : 

Declarative (Statement) C. Tenses DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Past Simple Past Perfect Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect

Let’s see the following changes : 

Let’s see the following changes DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Verb 1 Verb 2 Verb 2 Had + Verb 3 Is was Am was Are were Have had Has had Do did Does did Was/were had been Did had + verb 3

Let’s see the following changes : 

Let’s see the following changes DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Can could May might Must had to Shall should Will would

Let’s see the following changes : 

Let’s see the following changes DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Ought to + verb 1 ought to + have + verb 3 / been Could + verb 1 could + have + verb 3 / been Might + verb 1 might + have + verb 3 / been Should + verb 1 should + have + verb3 / been Would + verb 1 would + have + verb 3 / been

Examples: : 

Examples: DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Andi: ‘I will go now.’ Andi said that he would go then Rani: ‘They love me.’ Rani told me they loved her ‘I’ve been writing’, Dina Dina answered that she answered had been writing Mother: ‘I was sick yesterday.’ Mother told that she had been sick the day before

3. Interrogative (question) : 

3. Interrogative (question) a. Preceded by Auxiliary When the question is preceded by auxiliary that needs yes/No answer it will be used the conjunction if or whether in the indirect speech The steps how to make indirect speech: The question sentence of the indirect speech is firstly changed to be statement It then follows the rules before

Example : 

Example DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Doctor: ‘Do you usually take a nap?’ It is firstly changed to be: You usually take a nap Doctor asks if/whether I usually take a nap

Example : 

Example DIRECT SPEECH Mary: ‘Are you a student?’ It is firstly changed to be: You are a student INDIRECT SPEECH Ratu asked if/whether I was a student

Example : 

Example DIRECT SPEECH John: ‘May I borrow your car?’ Preceded by Question Word (QW) It is firstly changed to be: I may borrow your car INDIRECT SPEECH John asked if he might borrow my John asked whether he might borrow my

a. Preceded by Question Words : 

a. Preceded by Question Words In the question using Question Word (QW) To form indirect speech the question is firstly changed to be statement QW: what, when, where, which, why, who, whom, etc. are used as conjunction

Example : 

Example DIRECT SPEECH Andi: ‘How do you spell your name?’ - It is firstly changed to be: You spell your name INDIRECT SPEECH Andi asked how I spelt my name

Example : 

Example DIRECT SPEECH Sophia: Where can you keep your money safely?’ It is firstly changed to be: You can keep your money safely INDIRECT SPEECH - Sophia asked me where I could keep my money safely.

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THANK YOU VERY MUCH