malaria

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1:

project of malaria

History of malaria :

History of malaria The history of malaria predates humanity, as this ancient disease evolved before humans did . Malaria , a widespread and potentially lethal infectious disease, has afflicted people for much of human history , and has affected settlement patterns. The prevention and treatment of the disease have been investigated in science and medicine for hundreds of years, and, since the discovery of the parasite which causes it, attention has focused on its biology. These studies have continued up to the present day, since no effective vaccine has yet been developed and many of the older antimalarial drugs are losing effectiveness as the parasite evolves high levels of drug resistance . As malaria remains a major public health problem, causing 250 million cases of fever and approximately one million deaths annually, understanding its history is key .

What is malaria?:

What is malaria? Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, Plasmodium , which infects red blood cells. Malaria is characterized by cycles of chills , fever , pain, and sweating. Historical records suggest malaria has infected humans since the beginning of mankind. The name "mal aria" (meaning "bad air" in Italian) was first used in English in 1740 by H. Walpole when describing the disease. The term was shortened to "malaria" in the 20th century. C. Laveran in 1880 was the first to identify the parasites in human blood. In 1889, R. Ross discovered that mosquitoes transmitted malaria. Of the four common species that cause malaria, the most serious type is Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It can be life-threatening. However, another relatively new species, Plasmodium Knowles, is also a dangerous species that is typically found only in long-tailed and pigtail macaque monkeys. Like P. falciparum, P. Knowles may be deadly to anyone infected. The other three common species of malaria (P. vivid, P. malaria, and P. ovule) are generally less serious and are usually not life-threatening. It is possible to be infected with more than one species of Plasmodium at the same time. Currently, about 2 million deaths per year worldwide are due to Plasmodium infections. The majority occur in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan African countries. There are about 400 million new cases per year worldwide. Most people diagnosed in the U.S. obtained their infection outside of the country, usually while living or traveling through an area where malaria is endemic .

What are malaria symptoms and signs?:

What are malaria symptoms and signs? The symptoms characteristic of malaria include flulike illness with fever , chills, muscle aches, and headache . Some patients develop nausea, vomiting , cough, and diarrhea . Cycles of chills, fever, and sweating that repeat every one, two, or three days are typical. There can sometimes be vomiting , diarrhea , coughing , and yellowing ( jaundice ) of the skin and whites of the eyes due to destruction of red blood cells and liver cells. People with severe P. falciparum malaria can develop bleeding problems, shock , liver or kidney failure , central nervous system problems, coma , and can die from the infection or its complications. Cerebral malaria ( coma , or altered mental status or seizures ) can occur with severe P. falciparum infection. It is lethal if not treated quickly; even with treatment, about 15%-20% die.

How is malaria transmitted?:

How is malaria transmitted? The life cycle of the malaria parasite (Plasmodium) is complicated and involves two hosts, humans and Anopheles mosquitoes. The disease is transmitted to humans when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person and injects the malaria parasites (sporozoites) into the blood. This is shown in Figure 1, where the illustration shows a mosquito taking a blood meal (circle label 1 in Figure 1). Sporozoites travel through the bloodstream to the liver, mature, and eventually infect the human red blood cells. While in red blood cells, the parasites again develop until a mosquito takes a blood meal from an infected human and ingests human red blood cells containing the parasites. Then the parasites reach the Anopheles mosquito's stomach and eventually invade the mosquito salivary glands. When an Anopheles mosquito bites a human, these sporozoites complete and repeat the complex Plasmodium life cycle. P. ovule and P. vivid can further complicate the cycle by producing dormant stages (hypnozoites) that may not develop for weeks to years.

Information:

Information five species Alphonse Laveran was the first to notice parasites in the blood of a patient suffering from malaria Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium – single-celled organisms that cannot survive outside of their host(s). Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the majority of malaria deaths globally and is the most prevalent species in sub-Saharan Africa. The remaining species are not typically as life threatening as P. falciparum. Plasmodium vivax , is the second most significant species and is prevalent in Southeast Asia and Latin America. P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale have the added complication of a dormant liver stage, which can be reactivated in the absence of a mosquito bite, leading to clinical symptoms. P. ovale and Plasmodium malariae represent only a small percentage of infections. A fifth species Plasmodium knowlesi – a species that infects primates – has led to human malaria, but the exact mode of transmission remains unclear

Where is malaria a particular problem?:

Where is malaria a particular problem? Malaria is a particular problem and a major one in areas of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America. Unless precautions are taken, anyone living in or traveling to a country where malaria is present can get the disease. Malaria occurs in about 100 countries; approximately 40% of the world population is at risk for contracting malaria. To get information on countries that have current malaria infection problems, the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) has a constantly updated web site ( http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/travelers/ country table/ a.html ) that lists the problem areas in detail. HIV ( AIDS ) and malaria co-infection is a significant problem across Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Research suggests that malaria and HIV co-infection can lead to worse clinical outcomes in patients. It seems that co-infections enhance the disease process of both pathogens .

What is the incubation period for malaria?:

What is the incubation period for malaria? The period between the mosquito bite and the onset of the malarial illness is usually one to three weeks (seven to 21 days). This initial time period is highly variable as reports suggest that the range of incubation periods may range from four days to one year. The usual incubation period may be increased when a person has taken an inadequate course of malaria prevention medications. Certain types of malaria (P. vivid and P. ovule) parasites can also take much longer, as long as eight to 10 months, to cause symptoms. These parasites remain dormant (inactive or hibernating) in the liver cells during this time. Unfortunately, some of these dormant parasites can remain even after a patient recovers from malaria, so the patient can get sick again. This situation is termed relapsing malaria.

Slide 13:

Wooden Huts on River Photograph by Nic Cleave Photography/ AlamyWashed garments hung to dry add splashes of color to weatherworn huts lining a river in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Poverty and weather conditions compound the problem of malaria. Outside of Africa, the majority of recorded cases of malaria are concentrated here and in eight other countries in Asia and South America.

Malaria parasite amid redblood cell:

Malaria parasite amid redblood cell a new generation The invasion has begun. Microscopic magnification shows Plasmodium falciparum —the most virulent of the four malaria parasites that infect humans—destroying red blood cells in the liver. It digests a cell's hemoglobin, multiplies inside to the point of rupturing the cell, and rapidly spreads of infection .

Anopheles mosquito:

Anopheles mosquito

Slide 17:

Her abdomen full of blood that will nourish her eggs, a female Anopheles mosquito takes to the air. Her next landing may be a dangerous one—for the human who receives her bite. The female Anopheles mosquito is the only insect capable of carrying the human malaria parasite.

Plasmodium images:

Plasmodium images

Made by Mashal Iftikhar school; Pakistani school Ajman subject; Biology class teacher; Fatima Iqbal :

Made by Mashal Iftikhar school; Pakistani school Ajman subject; Biology class teacher; Fatima Iqbal

I hope you liked it!:

I hope you liked it!

authorStream Live Help