1. Introduction to Hazardous Materials

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In this lecture, students will be introduce to the: A. Hazardous Materials B. Hazardous Waste C. Hazardous Substances

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A. What Is Hazardous Material? Simply Definition: Hazardous material is any item or agent (biological, chemical, physical) which has the potential to cause harm to humans (health hazard), animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors. Standard Definition: Hazardous materials are defined and regulated in the United States primarily by laws and regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Each has its own definition of a "hazardous material."

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Various of Hazard Symbols

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Hazardous materials are regulated by three primary government agencies: 1. Department of Transportation (DOT) Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR) 2. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR) 3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) *The International Fire and Building Codes also regulate hazardous materials .

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HEALTH HAZARDS ARE LISTED IN TWO BROAD CATEGORIES 1. Acute Acute Effects usually occur rapidly as a result of “SHORT TERM EXPOSURE” and are of “SHORT DURATION” 2. Chronic Chronic Effects generally occur as a result of “LONG TERM EXPOSURE” and are of “LONG DURATION”

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Hazardous Materials Regulations (cont…) DOT regulations; tell us how to properly package, identify, and label hazardous materials and hazardous wastes for transportation OSHA regulations; tell us how to protect ourselves from the effects of hazardous materials in the workplace EPA regulations; tell us how to protect our environment

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DOT Regulations The DOT classifies hazardous materials into 9 primary hazard classes which are subdivided into multiple subsidiary risk groups Class 1: Explosives Class 2: Compressed Gases Class 3: Flammable Liquids Class 4: Flammable Solids Class 5: Oxidizers Class 6: Poisons & Toxics Class 7: Radioactive materials Class 8: Corrosives Class 9: Miscellaneous hazardous materials that don’t fit any other hazard class… (dry ice, for example)

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OSHA Regulations OSHA regulations include the following standards: Hazard Communication Standard (a.k.a., Hazcom , Right-to-Know) Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories includes requirements for Chemical Hygiene Plans Respiratory Protection Standard Confined Space Entry Requirements Asbestos Standard Lead ( Pb ) Standard Bloodborne pathogen standard Formaldehyde, Benzene, and Methylene Chloride standards * OSHA also establishes permissible exposure levels (PELs) for hazardous chemicals.

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EPA Regulations The EPA regulations help us protect our environment, and include the following: Resource Conservation Recovery Act Hazardous Waste Regulations (RCRA) Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Emergency Planning & Community Right-to-Know Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides

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B. But, what Is Hazardous Waste? Simply Definition; ANY HAZARDOUS LIQUID, SOLID OR GASEOUS materials which is NO longer usable for its original intended purpose OR which has been contaminated by a foreign Standard Definition: U.S. environmental laws additionally describe a "hazardous waste" as a waste (usually a solid waste) that has the potential to: cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality (death) or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness; or pose a substantial (present or potential) hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.

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In the United States, hazardous wastes generated by commercial or industrial activities may be classified as "listed" hazardous wastes or "characteristic" hazardous wastes by the EPA. In regulatory terms, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste is a waste that either a "characteristic waste" or a "listed waste": Characteristic Waste - exhibits at least one of the four "characteristics" of hazardous waste (ignitability, corrosivity , reactivity, or toxicity) Listed Waste - appears on one of the four hazardous wastes lists (F-list, K-list, P-list, or U-list), or

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1. Characteristic wastes Characteristic Hazardous Wastes are defined as wastes that exhibit the following characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity , reactivity, or toxicity Ignitability Ignitable wastes can create fires under certain conditions, are spontaneously combustible, or have a flash point less than 60 °C (140 °F). Examples include waste oils and used solvents Corrosive Corrosive wastes are acids or bases (pH less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5) that are capable of corroding metal containers, such as storage tanks, drums, and barrels. Battery acid is an example

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Reactivity Reactive wastes are unstable under "normal“ conditions. They can cause explosions, toxic fumes, gases, or vapors when heated, compressed, or mixed with water. Examples include lithium-sulfur batteries and explosives Toxicity Toxic wastes are those containing concentrations of certain substances in excess of regulatory thresholds which are expected to cause injury or illness to human health or the environme nt

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2. Listed wastes Listed hazardous wastes are generated by specific industries and processes and are automatically considered hazardous, based solely on the process that generates them and irrespective of whether a test of the waste shows any of the "characteristics" of hazardous waste. Examples of listed wastes include: many sludges leftover from electroplating processes certain waste from iron and steel manufacturing wastes from certain cleaning and/or degreasing proc esses

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Hazardous wastes are incorporated into lists published by the Environmental Protection Agency. These lists are organized into three categories: a. The F-list (non-specific source wastes) This list identifies wastes from common manufacturing and industrial processes, such as solvents, that have been used in cleaning or degreasing operations. Because the processes producing these wastes can occur in different sectors of industry, the F-listed wastes are known as wastes from non-specific sources Simple Example: halogenated solvents used to degrease equipment

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b. The K-list (specific source/process wastes) This list includes certain wastes from specific industries, such as petroleum refining or pesticide manufacturing. Certain sludges and wastewaters from treatment and production processes in these industries are examples of source-specific wastes Simple Example: Product washwaters from the production of dinitrotoluene via nitration of toluene

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c. Discarded wastes (P-List and U-List) P-List and U-List wastes are actually sublists of the same major list applying to discarded wastes. These wastes apply to commercial chemical products that are considered hazardous when discarded and are regulated under the following U.S. Federal Regulation: 40 C.F.R. 261.33(e) and 261.33(f) P-List wastes are wastes that are considered "acutely hazardous" when discarded and are subject to more stringent regulation. Nitric oxide is an example of a P-list waste and carries the number P076. U-Listed wastes are considered "hazardous" when discarded and are regulated in a somewhat less stringent manner than P- Listed wastes.

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Simply: U-listed wastes are toxic wastes or specific substances for eg : carbon disulfide Othre Examples of U-Listed Wastes: Acetaldehyde , 1,4-Dioxane , Acetone , Ethyl acetate , Acetonitrile , Ethyl ether , Aniline , Formaldehyde , Benzene , Methyl alcohol , Bromoform , Methylene chloride , 1-Butanol , Phenol , Chloroform , Toluene

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P-listed wastes are acutely hazardous wastes or off – spec products and intermediates eg : benzal chloride Other Examples of P-Listed Wastes: Allyl alcohol , Osmium tetroxide , Ammonium vanadate , Phenylthiourea , Arsenic acid , Potassium cyanide , Arsenic trioxide , Sodium azide , Carbon disulfide , Sodium cyanide , 2,4-Dinitrophenol , Thiosemicarbazide , Fluorine , Vanadium oxide , Nitric oxide , Vanadium pentoxide

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4. Universal Wastes Universal wastes include the following materials that are commonly found in the workplace Batteries Fluorescent lamps Pesticides Thermometers (containing mercury) Used oil

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Some of hazard waste….

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C. Hazardous Substance Common Hazardous Substances/Ingredients in Products: 1. DEA, TEA, MEA - Diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA), & monoethanolamine (MEA) Are hormone disruptors They are also known to combine with nitrates to form cancer-causing nitrosamines There is no way to know which products contain nitrosamines because government does not require manufacturers to disclose this information on the label

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A 1997 study by the U.S. National Toxicology Program found that these compounds themselves might also be carcinogenic Repeated skin application of DEA was found to cause liver and kidney damage in animals The study also discovered that when absorbed through the skin, DEA accumulated in organs TEA may also cause contact dermatitis in some individuals

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2. Dioxins It's formed as an accidental byproduct of some manufacturing processes using chlorine, especially paper bleaching and the creation of plastic Dioxin is one of the most powerful carcinogens known and accumulates in body fat Mainstream deodorants and anti-bacterial soaps are suspect Chlorine bleached tissues, toilet paper and cotton balls can contain dioxin Plastic bottles may leach dioxin into creams, shampoos and other products we use daily

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3. Lead Lead is a known carcinogen and hormone disruptor It is readily absorbed through the skin, and accumulates in the bones It causes neurological damage and behavior abnormalities, and large accumulations can result in leg cramps, muscle weakness, numbness and depression Lead is found in some hair dyes

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4. Nonylphenols This estrogen-mimicking chemical is a surfactant used for its detergent properties It can be found in some plastics, as well as shaving creams, shampoos and hair colours Nonylphenols can be a component in polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a compound often found in acrylic nails They are persistent in the environment and of such concern that many European countries are phasing them out. Some manufacturers have voluntarily discontinued their use

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5. Phenylenediamine Used in permanent hair dyes, phenylenediamine can cause eczema, bronchial asthma, gastritis, skin irritation and even death It is also a carcinogen It can react with other chemicals to cause photosensitivity

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6. Phthalates They are found in many products from plastics to shampoo These hormone-disrupting chemicals are suspected of contaminating breast milk and causing damage to the kidneys, liver, lungs and reproductive organs One type of phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) is commonly found in fragrances and other personal care products

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7. Talc Talc is a naturally occurring mineral which is carcinogenic when inhaled In addition, women who regularly use talc in the genital area are at increased risk for ovarian cancer Airborne talc in body powders and antiperspirant sprays can irritate the lungs Talcum powder is reported to cause coughing, vomiting, and even pneumonia. Many pediatricians now tell parents to avoid using talc on babies as it can cause respiratory distress, sometimes resulting in death

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References: Woodside, G. (1990). Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Waste Management . 2nd Edition. Wiley. Griffin, R.D. (1998). Principles of Hazardous Materials Management . CRC Drop-dead Gorgeous, Kim Erikson, Contemporary Books, 2002 University of Alaska Fairbanks, Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management Internet Sources