Gerunds-1

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Gerunds:

Gerunds BY KAISI MUHAMMAD

Gerunds:

Gerunds Gerunds always end in –ing They are used in the sentence as nouns and in every way that any other noun can be used: Swimming is a good exercise. (subject) Jane does not enjoy cooking. (direct object) After eating, relax for a while. (object of preposition)

Gerund Phrases:

Gerund Phrases Like participles, gerunds can have a direct object. To find out whether or not the gerund has a direct object, begin with the gerund and ask the following question: Gerund + whom/what? = direct object

Gerund Phrases:

Gerund Phrases Example: Giving the money proved a mistake. Giving + What? = money Money is the direct object of the gerund.

Gerund Phrases:

Gerund Phrases Gerund phrases can also have indirect objects: To find out whether or not the gerund phrase has an indirect object, begin with the gerund, locate the direct object, then ask the question to/for whom/what?

Gerund Phrase:

Gerund Phrase Example: Giving Jerry the money proved a mistake. Giving + what = money (direct object) Giving money to/for whom? = Jerry Jerry is the indirect object of the gerund phrase.

Gerund Phrases:

Gerund Phrases Gerund phrases can also have prepositional phrases in them: Giving Jerry the money on Friday night proved a major mistake. Since on Friday night tells when? The prepositional phrase functions as an adverb. It completes the gerund phrase.

Gerunds:

Gerunds Gerunds end in –ing Gerunds are nouns. To find out how they function as a noun, isolate the gerund or gerund phrase, locate the main verb in the sentence and the main direct object (if there is one). Ask the following question:

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds:

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds What? + the main verb = subject Example: Giving Jerry the money on Friday night proved a major mistake. Proved is the main verb. Mistake is the direct object. What? + Proved a mistake=Giving Jerry the money The gerund phrase is the subject of the main sentence.

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds:

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds Subject + verb + what? = direct object We can’t afford making the same mistake. We + can afford + What? = direct object Answer: Making the same mistake is the direct object of the sentence.

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds:

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds Preposition + gerund phrase = Object of the Preposition Example: After waiting patiently for an hour Bill left the office. Waiting patiently for an hour functions as the object of the preposition.

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds:

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds Subject + verb + direct object + to/for what? = indirect object The tribe gave naming their children extreme importance. Tribe gave importance to what? = naming their children Naming their children functions as the indirect object of the sentence.

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds:

Key Questions to Determine Noun Functions in Gerunds Subject + Linking verb + what? = Predicate nominative His hobby is collecting stamps. His mother is driving a car. Note: since the subject hobby cannot do the action of the verb (collect), collecting is a gerund. Collecting stamps becomes the gerund phrase and it functions as predicate nominative.

Summary of Noun Functions:

Summary of Noun Functions What? + main verb = subject Subject + verb + what = direct object Subject + Linking verb + what = predicate nominative Subject + verb + Direct Object + to/for what? = indirect object Preposition + gerund phrase = object of the preposition.

Summary:

Summary Gerunds always end with –ing Gerunds are always nouns Gerunds can be Subjects Direct objects Indirect objects Objects of the prepositions Predicate nominatives

Note:

Note Ask the key questions: What + the verb = subject Subject + verb + what = Direct object Subject + linking verb + what = Predicate nominative Subject + verb + direct object + to/for what = indirect object Preposition + gerund = object of the preposition

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