Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio

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Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13C, 2H, and 18O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers

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American Journal of Applied Chemistry 2015 36: 217-223 Published online December 21 2015 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajac doi: 10.11648/j.ajac.20150306.17 ISSN: 2330-8753 Print ISSN: 2330-8745 Online Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13 C 2 H and 18 O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers Mahendra Kumar Trivedi 1 Alice Branton 1 Dahryn Trivedi 1 Gopal Nayak 1 Gunin Saikia 2 Snehasis Jana 2 1 Trivedi Global Inc. Henderson USA 2 Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd. Hall-A Chinar Mega Mall Chinar Fortune City Hoshangabad Rd. Bhopal Madhya Pradesh India Email address: publicationtrivedisrl.com S. Jana To cite this article: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi Alice Branton Dahryn Trivedi Gopal Nayak Gunin Saikia Snehasis Jana. Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13 C 2 H and 18 O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers. American Journal of Applied Chemistry. Vol. 3 No. 6 2015 pp. 217-223. doi: 10.11648/j.ajac.20150306.17 Abstract: O-Toluic acid OTA and m-toluic acid MTA are two isomers of toluic acid that act as an important organic intermediates mostly used in medicines and pesticides. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratios of 2 H/ 1 H 13 C/ 1 2C PM+1/PM and 18 O/ 16 O PM+2/PM in toluic acid isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS. The OTA and MTA samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1 T2 T3 and T4. The treated group was subjected to biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of both the isomers showed five m/z peaks due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks of toluic acid derivatives. The isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM were calculated for both the isomers and found significant alteration in the treated isomers. The isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in treated samples of OTA was decreased and then slightly increased upto 2.37 in T2 where the PM+2/PM in treated OTA significantly decreased by 55.3 in T3 sample. Similarly in case of MTA the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the treated sample showed a slight increase the PM+2/PM was decreased by 11.95 in T2 as compared to their respective control. GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment on toluic acid isomers had significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2 H 13 C and 18 O in OTA and MTA as compared to the control. Keywords: Biofield Energy Treatment o-Toluic Acid m-Toluic Acid Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry 1. Introduction The distribution of contaminant sources of any molecule on a native or global scale can be understood by determining the isotopic abundance ratio and characterization of elementary reaction mechanisms 1. The natural abundance or any kinetic process that leads to the local depletion or enhancement of isotopes in organic molecules can be successfully determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS 2. Moreover the rate of chemical reaction may vary with the mass of the nucleus with different isotopic substitutions which slightly affect the partitioning of energy within the molecules. These deviations from perfect chemical equivalence are termed as isotope effects. The isotopic abundance ratio is commonly reported in terms of atom percent and determined by high resolution mass spectrometry HRMS spectrometry 3. Two toluic acid derivatives o-toluic acid OTA and m-toluic acid MTA were taken for mass spectroscopy study. Both of the toluic acid derivatives are widely used as a chemical intermediate to synthesis the insect repellant in the chemical industry as plastic stabilizer in polymer industry and as a starting material in pharmaceutical products 4 5. MTA is used specifically as starting material in the production of 3-carboxybenzaldehyde 3-methylbenzophenone 3-benzoylphenylacetic acid NN-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide etc. 6. They are mostly found in crude oil and artificially synthesized from toluidines and oxidation of ortho and meta xylenes 7. Besides toluic acid isomers are biodegradable

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218 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13 C 2 H and 18 O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers products and its bioaccumulation potential is very low as compared to their homologs. This chemical is stable to hydrolysis in water in abiotic conditions however indirect photo-oxidation may have occurred via hydroxy radicals in the atmosphere. If xylene and toluene were taken with contaminated food they are metabolized mainly to methylbenzoic and benzoic acid respectively which eventually conjugated with glycine to produce methylhippuric and hippuric acid then excreted in the urine 8. The photophysical stability as well as chemical reactivity of toluic acid isomers is the primary concern and could be altered by an alternative approach: Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The properties could be enhanced by utilizing The Trivedi Effect® a unique biofield energy treatment by Mr. Trivedi which is already known to alter the physical and structural properties of various living and non-living substances 910. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NCCAM has recommended the use of biofield therapy as a part of complementary and alternative medical therapies CAM in the healthcare sector 11. CAM includes numerous energy-healing therapies in which the biofield therapy is a form of putative energy medicine that is being widely used worldwide to improve the overall health of human beings. Humans have the ability to harness energy from the environment/universe and can be transmitted to any object living or non-living around the globe. This process is called biofield energy treatment. The impact of the Trivedi Effect® has been studied in various research fields like microbiology biotechnology and agricultural research 91012-14. Based on the outstanding results achieved by the biofield energy treatments on ceramics microbiology and agricultural research an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in OTA and MTA. 2. Experimental 2.1. Materials and Methods Both o-toluic acid OTA and m-toluic acid MTA were procured from S D Fine Chemicals Pvt. Limited India. Each of the samples was distributed into two parts where one part of each sample was referred as control sample and the other part was considered as treated. The treated sample was further divided into four groups i.e. T1 T2 T3 and T4 and handed over to Trivedi for biofield energy treatment under standard laboratory conditions. Trivedi provided the treatment through his energy transmission process to the treated group without touching the sample. The control and treated samples were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS. 2.2. GC-MS Spectroscopy GC-MS analysis was performed on Perkin ElmerUSA/auto system XL with Turbo mass having detection limit up to 1 picogram. The GC-MS spectra were obtained in the form of abundance vs. mass to charge ratio m/z. The isotopic abundance ratio 2H/1H or 13C/12C PM+1/PM and 18O/16O PM+2/PM was expressed by its deviation in treated samples as compared to the control one. The percentage change in isotopic ratio PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM were calculated with the following formula: Percent change in isotopic abundance ratio R R R 100 Where RTreated and RControl are the ratios of intensity at PM+1 to PM in mass spectra of treated and control samples respectively. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. GC-MS Study of OTA Figure 1. GC-MS spectrum of control o-toluic acid sample. The GC-MS spectra of control and treated T1 T2 T3 and T4 samples are presented in Figure 1 and 2 respectively. Mass spectra of OTA is well matched with the reported literature 15. MS spectra showed five peaks including molecular ion peak PM for both the control and treated samples of OTA. Five major peaks at m/z 136 118 91 65 and 39 were observed that corresponded to the following ions respectively: C 8 H 8 O 2 + C 8 H 6 O+ C 7 H 7 + C 5 H 5 + and C 3 H 3 + ions. Peak at m/z 136 was the molecular ion peak and the other peaks observed in both control and all treated OTA samples were due to the fragmentation of OTA inside mass spectrum.

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American Journal of Applied Chemistry 2015 36: 217-223 219 The base peak at m/z 91 was observed due to breaking of o-toluic acid to stable toluene molecule that showed the highest intensity in the mass spectrum. Further m/z 118 65 and 39 peaks were observed due to first reduction of the molecular ion to aldehyde which again fragmented to give cyclopentene and propyne respectively. The intensity ratio and calculated percentage isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM is presented in the Table 1. Moreover the isotopic abundance ratio PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in control and treated OTA was plotted in Figure 3. Table 1. GC-MS isotopic abundance analysis result of o-toluic acid. Peak Intensity Control Treated T1 T2 T3 T4 m/z of PM 71.9 69.8 55.63 72.9 56.28 m/z of PM+1 6.3 5.77 4.99 6.37 5.03 PM+1/ PM 0.087 0.082 0.089 0.087 0.089 Percent change as compared to the control -5.65 2.37 -0.27 2.00 m/z of PM+2 0.64 0.51 0.44 0.29 0.48 PM+2/ PM 0.0089 0.0073 0.0079 0.0039 0.0085 Percent change as compared to the control -17.91 -11.14 -55.3 -4.18 Figure 2. GC-MS spectra of treated o-toluic acid samples T1 T2 T3 and T4.

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220 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13 C 2 H and 18 O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers It was clearly seen from the Table 1 and Figure 3 that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM of OTA sample was decreased in T1 5.65 and T3 0.27 but increased slightly in T2 2.37 and T4 2 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. However the isotopic ratio of PM+2/PM in treated OTA sample was decreased significantly in all the four treated samples T117.91 T211.14 T355.3 and T44.18. The slight alteration in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM may have nominal effect on the bond energies and reactivity of the molecules of treated samples. However the decreased isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM may reduce the number of higher isotope 18 O in the molecule. It may directly affect the bond strength of the C-O and O-H bonds. The decreased isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the treated OTA sample may decrease µ effective mass and binding energy in the –COOH group in the molecule with lighter isotopes and this may result in enhance reactivity of the molecule 16. Figure 3. Percentage change in the isotopic abundance PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM of o-toluic acid under biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. 3.2. GC-MS Study of MTA Mass spectra of both control and treated samples were shown in Figure 4 and 5 respectively. The molecular ion peak was observed at m/z 136 in mass spectra of both control and treated samples. The calculated relative intensity ratio of PM+1/PM PM+2/PM and percentage abundance ratios are given in Table 2. Total five major peaks were observed in the mass spectra of both control and treated spectra of MTA at m/z 136 118 91 65 and 39 corresponded to the following ions respectively: C 8 H 8 O 2 + C 8 H 6 O+ C 7 H 7 + C 5 H 5 + and C 3 H 3 + ions. Both OTA and MTA exhibited similar fragmentation pattern with the base peak at m/z 91 due to the formation of toluene in the mass spectra and molecular ion peak at m/z 136. The isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM of control and treated MTA was calculated and presented in Figure 6. The isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM of treated MTA was increased upto 4.18 T11.43 T22.48 T32.9 and T44.18 as compared to the control. However the isotope abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was decreased upto 11.95 T1 6.88 T2 11.95 T3 10.96 and T45.69. The mass spectra of MTA is well supported with the reported literature 17. Figure 4. GC-MS spectrum of control sample of m-toluic acid. In a chemical bond if the lighter isotopes were substituted by heavier isotopes then the effective mass µ of the particular bond is increased and subsequently binding energy was increased 16. The reverse may also happen if the heavier isotopes part of the chemical bonding were substituted by lighter isotopes in a molecule. Thus the increased isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in OTA and MTA might increase the effective mass and binding energy after biofield energy treatment that may enhance the chemical stability of toluic acid derivatives. On the contrary the decreased isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in treated OTA and MTA might reduce the effective mass of the particular bond thus decreasing the binding energy. In toluic acid derivatives only 18 O contributes to the alteration in PM+2/PM ratio 18. Therefore the decrease in isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM may decrease the effective mass of the C-O and O-H bonds that may consequently increase the reactivity of the functional group. Further the reactivity of the aromatic ring might be decreased with increased isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM and the effective mass.

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American Journal of Applied Chemistry 2015 36: 217-223 221 Figure 5. GC-MS spectra of treated samples of m-toluic acid T1 T2 T3 and T4. Figure 6. Percentage change in the isotopic abundance of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM of m-toluic acid under biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. Table 2. GC-MS isotopic abundance analysis result of m-toluic acid. Peak Intensity Control Treated T1 T2 T3 T4 m/z of PM 55.35 45.82 52.39 86.77 58.69 m/z of PM+1 4.68 3.93 4.54 7.55 5.17 PM+1/ PM 0.084 0.085 0.086 0.087 0.088 Percent change as compared to the control 1.43 2.48 2.9 4.18 m/z of PM+2 0.48 0.37 0.4 0.67 0.48 PM+2/ PM 0.0086 0.0080 0.0076 0.0077 0.0081 Percent change as compared to the control -6.88 -11.95 -10.96 -5.69 Some probable bonds that might present in the biofield treated molecules such as 12 C- 12 C 1 H- 12 C 13 C- 12 C 2 H-12C 1 H- 13 C 12 C- 18 O 1 H- 18 O 13 C- 16 O and 2 H- 16 O. Effective mass

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222 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13 C 2 H and 18 O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers is calculated and presented in Table 3. The result showed that µ of normal 12 C- 12 C µ6 1 H- 12 C µ0.923 and 1 H- 16 O µ0.941 bonds were increased in case of heavier isotopes i.e. 13 C- 12 C6.26 2 H- 12 C1.71 and 2 H- 16 O1.77 respectively. After biofield treatment bond strength stability and binding energy of the aromatic ring of OTA and MTA molecules might be increased due to the higher effective mass µ these parameters might be decreased in carboxylic acid group after biofield energy treatment. The increased reactivity of the functional group and decreased reactivity of the ring part may increase the utility of the toluic acid derivatives as good starting material for pesticides and as a plasticizer in polymer industry. Further it will enhance the degradation kinetics in the environment while contaminated from the industrial waste. Table 3. Possible isotopic bonds in OTA and MTA. Isotopes Bond Isotope type Reduced mass mAmB /mA + mB 12 C- 12 C Lighter 6.000 13 C- 12 C Heavier 6.260 1 H- 12 C Lighter 0.923 1 H- 13 C Heavier 0.929 2 H- 12 C Heavier 1.710 1 H- 18 O Heavier 0.940 2 H- 16 O Heavier 1.770 18 O- 12 C Heavier 7.200 16 O- 13 C Heavier 7.170 Where mA- mass of atom A mB- mass of atom B here A may be C or H and so on. Most interestingly when methylbenzoic acid toluene and xylenes are taken internally they are all converted to hippuric acid derivative of benzoic acid by reaction with the amino acid glycine then passed through kidneys and eventually removed from the body with urine 19. The increased reactivity of carboxylic group after biofield energy treatment may enhance this metabolic process to remove toluic acid derivatives from the body. 4. Conclusions In summary toluic acid isomers were studied with GC-MS under the influence of biofield energy treatment and observed a significant change in isotope abundance of 2 H/ 1 H 13 C/ 12 C and 18 O/ 16 O as compared to the control sample. The alteration in isotopic abundance ratios have significant impact on bond energies and chemical reactivity of the molecules. The smaller enhancement in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in OTA and MTA the reactivity may be reduced slightly at the aromatic ring by slight increase in the effective mass m and the binding energy of the treated sample. However significant depletion in heavier isotopic abundance ratio PM+2/PM may increase the reactivity of the –COOH group after biofield energy treatment. From the above observations it can be concluded that the enhancement of heavier isotopes in the aromatic ring may decrease the reactivity of the aromatic ring but decreased heavier isotopes may increase the reactivity of the functional group of toluic acid isomers consequently enabling them to be used as an intermediate in the organic synthesis. It will also provide quicker biodegradation pathway in the environment while leaching. Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility SAIF Nagpur for providing the instrumental facility. We are very grateful for the support from Trivedi Science Trivedi Master Wellness and Trivedi Testimonials in this research work. Abbreviations PM- primary molecule PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H and PM+2- is the isotopic molecule for 18O. References 1 Muccio Z Jackson GP 2009 Isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Analyst 134: 213-222. 2 Rieley G 1994 Derivatization of organic-compounds prior to gas-chromatographic combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometric analysis: Identification of isotope fractionation processes. Analyst 119: 915-919. 3 Weisel CP Park S Pyo H Mohan K Witz G 2003 Use of stable isotopically labeled benzene to evaluate environmental exposures. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 13: 393-402. 4 http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Toluic+Acid 5 Yang HJ Ding MY 2002 Determination of o-toluic acid and its micro amounts of impurities in industrial products by HPLC. J Liq Chrom Rel Technol 25: 2709-2715. 6 Bays D Foster R 1974 Benzoylphenylacetic acids and related compounds. U.S. Patent 3828093. 7 Lebedev BL Pastukhova IV Eidus YT 1972 Reaction of carbon dioxide with toluene in the presence of aluminum chloride under pressure. 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American Journal of Applied Chemistry 2015 36: 217-223 223 13 Nayak G Altekar N 2015 Effect of biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9. 14 Shinde V Sances F Patil S Spence A 2012 Impact of biofield treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105. 15 http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgiIDC118901Mask2 00Mass-Spec 16 Smith BC 2011 Fundamentals of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group Boka Raton New York. 17 http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgiIDC99047Mask20 0Mass-Spec 18 Mook W Vries J 2003-2004 Environmental isotopes in the hydrological cycle principles and applications. International atomic energy agency Vienna 1-271. 19 Jain R 2015 An efficient screening method for detection of toluene-based inhalant abuse in urine by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detector. Addict Disord Their Treat 14: 47-52.

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