Characteristics of Manganese (II, III) Oxide

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of unique energy treatment on physical and atomic properties of Manganese (II, III) Oxide.

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Research Article Open Access Patil et al. J Material Sci Eng 2015 4:4 http://dx.doi.org/10.4175/2169-0022.1000177 Research Article Open Access Material Science Engineering Journal of Material Sciences Engineering ISSN: 2169-0022 Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000177 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese II III Oxide Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM and Latiyal O Trivedi Global Inc. 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969 Henderson NV 89052 USA Corresponding author: Patil S Trivedi Global Inc. 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969 Henderson NV 89052 USA Tel: +1 602-531-5400 E-mail: publicationtrivedieffect.com Received May 25 2015 Accepted June 23 2015 Published July 03 2015 Citation: Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of Biofeld Treatment on Physical Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese II III Oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. doi:10.4175/2169- 0022.1000177 Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author and source are credited. Keywords: Biofeld treatment Mn 3 O 4 X-ray difraction FT-IR Paramagnetic ESR Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis Particle size analysis Introduction Transition metal oxides TMOs constitute most interesting classes of solids which exhibits diferent varieties of structures and properties 1. Manganese II III oxides Mn 3 O 4 is an excellent example of TMOs which gained signifcant attention among researchers due to its wide range of applications in magnetic materials catalysis ion exchange magnetic data storage super capacitors molecular adsorption and ferrite materials 2-8. Mn 3 O 4 shows a paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature and ferromagnetic below 41-43K. Te magnetic properties of Mn 3 O 4 strongly depend on dislocations vacancies crystallite sizes and lattice parameters. Tis afrms that crystal structure and its properties play an exclusive role in controlling magnetic strength in Mn 3 O 4 that can be exploited in magnetic data storage applications. Mn 3 O 4 exists as normal spinal crystal structure in which Mn +2 occupy a tetrahedral position and Mn +3 at octahedral positions 34. Recently magnetism and electrochemical properties in Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles are controlled by modulating the crystal structure by various processes such as annealing at high temperature 9 doping 10 hydrothermal 11 ultrasonic bath 12 and co-precipitation etc. Physical and chemical properties like particle size surface area of Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles are controlled by various methods including vapor phase growth 13 thermal decomposition chemical liquid precipitation and solvothermal 1415. Nevertheless each technique has their own advantages but there are certain drawbacks which limit their applicability at commercial level such as vapour deposition method required high pressure and temperature to produce highly crystalline powder whereas thermal decomposition method requires specialized surfactants which may cause impurities in the product 16. It has been already reported that magnetic behaviour can be improved by increasing the crystalinity and particle size volume 916. Hence in order to develop highly crystalline Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles and to improve its applicability at commercial level a simple and cost efective method should be designed. Biofeld treatment is an excellent and cost efective approach which was recently Abstract In Mn 3 O 4 the crystal structure dislocation density particle size and spin of the electrons plays crucial role in modulating its magnetic properties. Present study investigates impact of Biofeld treatment on physical and atomic properties of Mn 3 O 4 . X-ray diffraction revealed the signifcant effect of biofeld on lattice parameter unit cell volume molecular weight crystallite sizes and densities of treated Mn 3 O 4 . XRD analysis confrmed that crystallinity was enhanced and dislocation density was effectively reduced by 80. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Mn-O bond strength was signifcantly altered by biofeld treatment. Electronic spin resonance analysis showed higher g-factor of electron in treated Mn 3 O 4 as compared to control along with altered spin-spin atomic interaction of Mn with other mixed valance states. Additionally ESR study affrmed higher magnetization behaviour of the treated Mn 3 O 4 . The results demonstrated that treated Mn3O4 ceramic could be used as an excellent material for fabrication of novel magnetic data storage devices. used to modulate the atomic structure 1718 and density 19-21 molecular weight 2223 of the bound atom thereby it facilitates the conversion of energy into mass and vice versa. Mr Trivedi is known for utilizing his biofeld referred herein as biofeld treatment for conducting experiments in various sectors such as material science 17- 24 agriculture 25-29 and microbiology 30-32 which are already reported elsewhere. Biofeld treatment had signifcantly changed the physical atomic and thermal properties in transition metals 171820 carbon allotropes 19 and metal oxide ceramics 2123 such as particle size was decreased by 71 in zirconium oxide 23 and crystallite size was increased by 66 in Vanadium Pentoxide V 2 O 5 21. Hence in present research investigation Mn 3 O 4 powder was exposed to Mr. Trivedi’s biofeld in order to improve its physical structural and magnetic properties. Te treated Mn 3 O 4 samples were characterized by FT-IR XRD ESR Brunauer-Emmett-Teller BET analysis and particle size analysis. Experimental Manganese II III oxide powders used in the present investigation were obtained from Sigma Aldrich USA 97 in purity. Five sets of these metal oxide powders were prepared from the master sample where frst set was considered as control which was untouched unexposed other four samples were exposed to Mr. Trivedi’s biofeld referred herein as treated sample T1 T2 T3 and T4. Particle size of control and treated samples were measured by laser particle size analyzer SYMPATEC HELOS-BF had a detection range of 0⋅1-875μm with setting parameters remain the same for all evaluations. Te data obtained from particle size analyzer was in the form of a chart

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Citation: Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of Biofeld Treatment on Physical Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese II III Oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. doi:10.4175/2169-0022.1000177 Page 2 of 6 Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000177 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal of cumulative percent vs. particle size.Te surface area of all samples was measured by surface area analyzer SMART SORB 90 Brunauer- Emmett-Teller BET. For atomic and structural level analysis all samples were characterized by X-ray difraction XRD Phillips Holland PW 1710 which has used copper anode with nickel flter and the wavelength of the radiation 1.54056 Å. Te Data obtained from the XRD system was in the form of a chart of 2θ vs. intensity with a detailed Table 1 containing peak intensity counts d value Å peak width θ 0 relative intensity . Te ‘d’ values were compared with a database of standard JCPDS Joint Committee on Powder Difraction Standards. Lattice parameter and unit cell volume was obtained by using Powder X sofware. Crystallite size was computed as: Crystallite sizek λ/b Cosθ Where λ is the wavelength of X-radiation used 1.54056 × 10 -10 m and k is the equipment constant 0.94. Te molecular weight of atom calculated as: Molecular weightnumber of protons × weight of a proton+number of neutrons × weight of a neutron+number of electrons × weight of an electron. Molecular weight in g/Mol was calculated from the weights of all atoms in a molecule multiplied by the Avogadro number 6.023 × 10 23 . As number of molecules per unit cell is known so the weight of unit cell can be computed easily by multiplying molecular weight to number of molecules per unit cell. Density was computed as the ratio of the weight of the unit cell to the volume of the unit cell. Micro strain and dislocation density were calculated 9 as: Micro strainb cosθ/4 Dislocation density1/Crystallite size 2 Percentage change in lattice parameter was calculated as: change in lattice parameter100 × Δa/a c Where Δa is the diference in lattice parameter of control and treated powders and a c is the lattice parameter of control powder. Percentage change in volume molecular weight density micro strain dislocation density was computed in a similar manner. IR spectra were evaluated using Perkin Elmer Fourier Transform Infrared FT-IR Spectrometer in the range of 300-4000/cm. Paramagnetic properties were characterized by Electron Spin Resonance ESR E-112 ESR Spectrometer of Varian USA of X-band microwave frequency 9.5 GHz which had sensitivity of 5 × 1010 ΔH spins. Results and Discussions Particle size and surface area analysis Te particle size determination of ceramic materials provides superior control over a range of product performance characteristics. Te particle size of Mn 3 O 4 was determined and illustrated in Figure 1. Te average particle size d 50 in treated sample was increased upto13 and then further was decreased by 3. Contrarily particle size d 99 size below which 99 particles present was reduced by 5.5 in treated Mn 3 O 4 samples. Surface area of the Mn 3 O 4 was measured by using BET analysis and results are presented in Figure 2 and Tables 2 and 3. Te Surface area of treated powders was reduced by 10 in 99 days afer biofeld treatment. Initially surface area were decreased by 4.5 with corresponding increase in particle size however afer 80 days both surface area and particle size were reduced. Te particle size was increased initially which was supported by a decrease in surface area due to the agglomeration of fne particles. Nevertheless a decrease in both particle size and surface area afer 80 days indicate that coarse particles would have fractured into fner particles with sharp edges and corners. X-ray difraction XRD Mn 3 O 4 ceramic powder was subjected to XRD analysis to investigate its crystalline nature and Powder X sofware was used to calculate various atomic and structural parameters. Te XRD difractogram of control and treated Mn 3 O 4 samples are illustrated in Figures 3a-3e. In the XRD difractogram only Mn 3 O 4 phase appears with intense crystalline peaks JCPDS Card No. 0041-1442 at Braggs angle 2θ17.8° 28.7° 32.2° 36° 37.8 ° 44.2° 50.4° 58.2° 59.6° 64.6° 73.8°. Tese crystalline peaks are attributed to plane 101 112 103 211 004 220 105 321 224 400 and 413 respectively. Te intensity of peaks increased in treated Mn 3 O 4 samples along 103 211 and 224 direction confrming increased crystallinity in treated samples Figures 3b-3e. Tis result indicates that biofeld treatment is directly acting upon the ceramic crystals inducing more long range order thereby facilitating crystallization of the ceramic samples. Figure 4 shows that the lattice parameter was reduced in treated samples from 0.25 to -0.30 in time period of 16 to 147 days. It was found that reduction in lattice parameter caused reduction in volume of unit cell and increase in density Figure 4. Additionally molecular weight was decreased by around -0.50 to -0.60 in treated Mn 3 O 4 samples in 147 days. Te crystallite size was calculated from the XRD graph and the results are presented in Figure 5. Te crystallite size was signifcantly enhanced by 96 in treated Mn 3 O 4 samples in No. of days after treatment Control Sample Day 1 Treated powder after 11 Days T1 Treated powder after 85 Days T2 Treated powder after 99 Days T3 Treated powder after 105 Days T4 Average particle Size d 50 µm 6.1 6.9 5.9 6.1 6.1 Percent change in Average Particle size d 50 - 13.1 -3.3 0 0 d99 Size below which 99 particles present µm 31.1 29.4 28.4 28.4 29 Percent change in particle size d 99 - -5.5 -8.7 -8.7 -6.8 Table 1: Particle size of control and treated sample of Mn 3 O 4 . No. of days after treatment Control 11 85 90 Surface Area m 2 /g 3.08 2.95 2.95 2.77 Percentage Change in Surface Area - -4.083 -4.259 -9.951 Table 2: Surface area result of control and treated sample of Mn 3 O 4 after biofeld treatment.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of Biofeld Treatment on Physical Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese II III Oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. doi:10.4175/2169-0022.1000177 Page 3 of 6 Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000177 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal 147 days which could be due to the reorientation of the planes in the same direction and unhindered movements of dislocations across grain boundaries which causes reduction of dislocation density by 50 Figure 1. Nevertheless the movement of dislocations needs large amount of energy so it is believed that energy used for this process was provided by two diferent sources: biofeld and the energy released during conversion of mass as per Einstein energy equation Emc 2 . Tis fact was well supported by loss in molecular weight of treated Mn 3 O 4 sample. Te large diference in crystallite size and particle size can be explained by the cumulative efect of fracturing agglomeration and consolidation process induced by energy milling through biofeld treatment. Moreover the noticeable decrease in micro strain and -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percent Change in Par t cle Size No. of Days A f er Treatment d50 d99 Figure 1: Percent change in Particle size d 50 and d 99 result of treated Mn 3 O 4 samples with time after treatment. -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percent Change No. of Days A f er treatment Surface Area d50 Figure 2: Average particle size d 50 and surface area of treated Mn 3 O 4 sample with time after treatment. Figure 3a: XRD spectra of Control Mn 3 O 4 Sample. Figure 3b: XRD spectra of Treated Mn 3 O 4 Sample T1 16 days after biofeld treatment. Figure 3c: XRD spectra of Treated Mn 3 O 4 Sample T2 106 days after biofeld treatment. Figure 3d: XRD spectra of Treated Mn 3 O 4 Sample T3 131 days after biofeld treatment. Figure 3e: XRD spectra of Treated Mn 3 O 4 Sample T4 147 days after biofeld treatment.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of Biofeld Treatment on Physical Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese II III Oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. doi:10.4175/2169-0022.1000177 Page 4 of 6 Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000177 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal dislocation density also supports the above observation Figure 5. FT-IR spectroscopy Te FT-IR spectra of control and treated Mn 3 O 4 samples are presented in Figures 6a and 6b. Te FT-IR of control sample showed vibration peak at 651/cm that corresponds to Mn-O stretching in tetrahedral and 563/cm corresponds to Mn +3 -O in octahedral positions 33. Other important peaks were observed at 3500/cm and 1500/cm which were attributed to weakly bound moisture water molecules in treated and control samples 33. In Figure 6a it was found that the treated sample T1 has not showed any peak in the fngerprint region 450-700/cm which was quite unexpected. It can be hypothesized that Mn-O bond was no longer exists or strength of Mn-O bond was greatly reduced. Contrarily treated sample T2 showed intense absorption peaks at 557cm -1 and 613/cm which was responsible to Mn-O in octahedral and Mn +3 -O in tetrahedral position respectively Figure 6b. It was also noticed that vibration peaks were shifed to lower wavenumber as compared to control sample that indicates that Mn-O bond length was reduced Figure 6b. Terefore IR spectra revealed that Mn-O bond length and bond force constant was signifcantly altered by biofeld. Electron spin resonance ESR spectroscopy Te ESR spectra analysis result of control and treated Mn 3 O 4 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 16 106 131 147 Change in Characteris t cs a f er Tretament in Percentag No. of Days A f er Treatment Percent Change in La t ce parameter "a" Percent Change in volume Percent Change in Density Percent Change in Molecular weight Figure 4: Change in lattice parameter unit cell volume molecular weight and density of treated Mn 3 O 4 sample with time after treatment. -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 50 100 150 200 Change in Characteris t cs a f er Tretament in Percentag No. of Days A f er treatment Percent Change in Crystalline Size Percent change in Micro Strain Percentage change in Disloca t on density Figure 5: Percent change in Crystallite size micro strain and dislocation density of treated Mn 3 O 4 samples with time after treatment. Figure 6a: FT-IR spectra of control and treatedMn 3 O 4 sample T1. Figure 6b: FT-IR spectra of control and treatedMn 3 O 4 sample T2. Control Sample Day 1 16 Days after treatment T1 106 Days after treatment T2 131 Days after treatment T3 147 Days after treatment T4 Lattice parameter a A° 5.810984 5.796193526 5.797734 5.796267 5.793405 Percent Change in Lattice Parameter -0.25452492 -0.22802 -0.25326 -0.30251 Volume of unit cell A° 3.17662 3.16047 3.16215 3.16055 3.15743 Percent Change in volume -0.50840201 -0.45552 -0.50588 -0.6041 Density 4.828738 4.853413148 4.850835 4.85329 4.858086 Percent Change in Density 0.510999946 0.4576 0.508456 0.607773 Molecular weight g/mol 233.4512 232.2643677 232.3878 232.2702 232.041 Percent Change in Molecular weight -0.50840201 -0.45552 -0.50588 -0.6041 Crystalline Size nm 87 108.8 108.8 145.03 170.76 Percent Change in Crystalline Size 20.04800909 20.03084 50.02997 96.28 Micro Strain 0.000416 0.00033275 0.000333 0.00025 0.000212 Percent change in Micro Strain -20.0367647 -20.0368 -40.0124 -49.0513 Dislocation Density lines/m 2 × 10 15 0.132118 0.084477725 0.084478 0.047543 0.034295 Percentage change in Dislocation density -36.05881 -36.0588 -64.0149 -74.0423 Table 3: Atomic and crystal structure characteristics of Mn 3 O 4 computed result from XRD.

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Citation: Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of Biofeld Treatment on Physical Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese II III Oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. doi:10.4175/2169-0022.1000177 Page 5 of 6 Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000177 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal samples are illustrated in Figure 7. It was found that the g-factor was slightly increased by 0.15 which indicated that the angular momentum of the electrons in the atom was probably increased through biofeld treatment. It was also observed that the spin resonance signal width of the treated sample was broadened by 11 which could be due to the increase in dipole-dipole and electrostatic interaction among Mn ions with other mixed valance states 3435. Additionally the resonance signal peak intensity was increased by 16 that might be due to the clustering of spins on the particle surface that may led to enhanced the magnetisation of treated Mn 3 O 4 samples. Tis result was also supported by increase in crystallinity and particle size 9. Further it was hypothesized that during high energy milling through biofeld treatment spins may get clustered on the surface and enhanced the magnetisation. Furthermore particle size analysis showed increase in particle size which is associated with the increase in volume of individual particles. Further the increase in volume of individual particle led to enhanced the magnetic moment in individual particles of treated Mn 3 O 4 17. Conclusion Current research work investigates the modulation of crystalline physical atomic and magnetic properties of Mn 3 O 4 ceramic powders using Mr. Trivedi‘s biofeld. Te particle size of Mn 3 O 4 powder was increased afer biofeld treatment which results into reduced surface area which may be due to combine efect of rupturing and agglomeration process. XRD result demonstrated that biofeld had signifcantly reduced the unit cell volume by 0.60 that was probably due to compressive stress applied during energy milling. Biofeld exposed sample showed the larger crystalline size as compared to control Mn 3 O 4 which was mainly due to reduction of the dislocation density and microstrain cause reorientation of neighbouring planes in same direction and thereby increasing crystallite size. Te reduction in dislocation density and microstrain could have led to enhance the paramagnetic behaviour of Mn 3 O 4 . ESR results revealed that magnetization and spin-spin atomic interaction of treated sample was enhanced which may be due to increasing in spin cluster density and high crystallinity respectively. Hence the increase in spin cluster density could lead to enhance the magnetisation of Mn 3 O 4 nanopowders. Tese excellent results indicates that biofeld treated Mn 3 O 4 ceramic powders can be used as novel materials for fabricating magnetic data storage devices and future research is needed to explore its further applications. Acknowledgement We would like to give thanks to all the staff of various laboratories for supporting us in conducting experiments. Special thanks to Dr Cheng Dong of NLSC Institute Change in g factor Change in signal width Change in signal height Treated 0.15 11.11 16.67 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Percent Change in characters t cs in Treated sample Figure 7: Percent change in g-factor ESR signal width and ESR signal height of treated Mn 3 O 4 sample as compared to control. of Physics and Chinese academy of sciences for providing the facilities to use PowderX software for analyzing XRD results. References 1. Rao CNR 1989 Transition Metal Oxides. 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Rohani T Entezari MH 2012 A novel approach for the synthesis of superparamagnetic Mn 3 O 4 nanocrystal by ultrasonic bath. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 19 : 560-569. 13. Chang YQ Yu DP Long Y Xu J Luo XH et al. 2005 Large-scale fabrication of single-crystalline Mn 3 O 4 nanowires via vapor phase growth. Journal of Crystal Growth 279: 88-92. 14. Zhang Y Qiao T Yahu X 2004 Preparation of Mn 3 O 4 nanocrystallites by low- temperature solvothermal treatment of γ-MnOOH nanowires. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 177: 4093-4097. 15. Zhang W Yang Z Liu Y Tang S Han X et al. 2004 Controlled synthesis of Mn 3 O 4 nanocrystallites and MnOOH nanorods by a solvothermal method. Journal of Crystal Growth 263: 394-399. 16. Daniel E 2012 Novel Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles via the Aminolytic Method and the Investigation of Their Magnetic Properties Georgia Institute of Technology. 17. Trivedi MK Tallapragada RR 2008 A transcendental to changing metal powder characteristics. 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Citation: Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of Biofeld Treatment on Physical Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese II III Oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. doi:10.4175/2169-0022.1000177 Page 6 of 6 Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000177 J Material Sci Eng ISSN: 2169-0022 JME an open access journal 22. Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2013 Effect of bio feld treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of Silicon Tin and Lead powders. Journal of Material Sciences and Engineering 2: 125. 23. Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RM 2014 Atomic Crystalline and Powder Characteristics of Treated Zirconia and Silica Powders. Journal of Material Sciences Engineering 3: 144. 24. Trivedi MK Patil S Tallapragada RMR 2015 Effect of Biofeld Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Aluminium Powders. Ind Eng Manage 4: 151. 25. Shinde V Sances F Patil S Spence A 2012 Impact of Biofeld Treatment on Growth and Yield of Lettuce and Tomato. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 6: 100-105. 26. Sances F Flora E Patil S Spence A Shinde V 2013 Impact of Biofeld Treatment On Ginseng And Organic Blueberry Yield. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science 35. 27. Lenssen AW 2013 Biofeld and Fungicide Seed Treatment Infuences on Soybean Productivity Seed Quality and Weed Community. Agricultural Journal 8: 138-143. 28. Patil SA Nayak GB Barve SS Tembe RP Khan RR 2012 Impact of Biofeld Treatment on Growth and Anatomical Characteristics of Pogostemon cablin Benth.. Biotechnology 11: 154-162. 29. Altekar N Nayak G 2015 Effect of Biofeld Treatment on Plant Growth and Adaptation. Journal of Environment and Health sciences 1: 1-9. 30. Trivedi M Patil S 2008 Impact of an external energy on Staphylococcus epidermis ATCC-13518 in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions-An experimental study. Journal of Accord Integrative Medicine 4: 230-235. 31. Trivedi M Patil S 2008 Impact of an external energy on Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC -23715 in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions: An experimental study. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine 6. 32. Trivedi M Bhardwaj Y Patil S Shettigar H Bulbule A 2009 Impact of an external energy on Enterococcus faecalis ATCC-51299 in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions-An experimental study. Journal of Accord Integrative Medicine 5: 119-130. 33. Sherin JS Thomas JK Suthagar J 2014 Combustion Synthesis and Magnetic Studies of Hausmannite Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development 10: 34-41. 34. Dhaouadi H Ghodbane O Hosni F Touati F 2012 Mn 3 O 4 Nanoparticles: Synthesis Characterization and Dielectric Properties. International Scholarly Research Network ISRN Spectroscopy 1-8. 35. Winkler E Zysler R 2004 Surface and magnetic interaction effects in Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Physical Review B 70: 174406. Submit your next manuscript and get advantages of OMICS Group submissions Unique features: • User friendly/feasible website-translation of your paper to 50 world’s leading languages • Audio Version of published paper • Digital articles to share and explore Special features: • 400 Open Access Journals • 30000 editorial team • 21 days rapid review process • Quality and quick editorial review and publication processing • Indexing at PubMed partial Scopus EBSCO Index Copernicus and Google Scholar etc • Sharing Option: Social Networking Enabled • Authors Reviewers and Editors rewarded with online Scientifc Credits • Better discount for your subsequent articles Submit your manuscript at: http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/submission Citation: Trivedi MK Nayak G Patil S Tallapragada RM Latiyal O 2015 Evaluation of Biofeld Treatment on Physical Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese II III Oxide. J Material Sci Eng 4: 177. doi:10.4175/2169-0022.1000177

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