Slide 1: Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Slide 2: 3.3 PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
What You Should Learn: Use the change-of-base formula to rewrite and evaluate logarithmic expressions. Use properties of logarithms to evaluate or rewrite logarithmic expressions. Use properties of logarithms to expand or condense logarithmic expressions. Use logarithmic functions to model and solve real-life problems. What You Should Learn
Slide 4: Change of Base
Change of Base: Change of Base Most calculators have only two types of log keys, one for common logarithms (base 10) and one for natural logarithms (base e ). Although common logarithms and natural logarithms are the most frequently used, you may occasionally need to evaluate logarithms with other bases. To do this, you can use the following change-of-base formula.
Change of Base: Change of Base One way to look at the change-of-base formula is that logarithms with base a are simply constant multiples of logarithms with base b . The constant multiplier is (1/log b a ).
Example 1 – Changing Bases Using Common Logarithms: Example 1 – Changing Bases Using Common Logarithms a. b. Use a calculator. Simplify.
Slide 8: Properties of Logarithms
Properties of Logarithms: Properties of Logarithms We know that the logarithmic function with base a is the inverse function of the exponential function with base a . So, it makes sense that the properties of exponents should have corresponding properties involving logarithms. For instance, the exponential property a 0 = 1 has the corresponding logarithmic property log a 1 = 0.
Properties of Logarithms: Properties of Logarithms
Example 3 – Using Properties of Logarithms: Example 3 – Using Properties of Logarithms Write each logarithm in terms of ln 2 and ln 3. a. ln 6 b. ln Solution: a. ln 6 = ln (2 3) = ln 2 + ln 3 b. ln = ln 2 – ln 27 = ln 2 – ln 3 3 = ln 2 – 3 ln 3 Rewrite 6 as 2 3. Product Property Power Property Rewrite 27 as 3 3 . Quotient Property
Slide 12: Rewriting Logarithmic Expressions
Rewriting Logarithmic Expressions: Rewriting Logarithmic Expressions The properties of logarithms are useful for rewriting logarithmic expressions in forms that simplify the operations of algebra. This is true because these properties convert complicated products, quotients, and exponential forms into simpler sums, differences, and products, respectively.
Example 5 – Expanding Logarithmic Expressions: Example 5 – Expanding Logarithmic Expressions Expand each logarithmic expression. a. log 4 5 x 3 y b. Solution: a. log 4 5 x 3 y = log 4 5 + log 4 x 3 + log 4 y = log 4 5 + 3 log 4 x + log 4 y Product Property Power Property
Example 5 – Solution: Example 5 – Solution b. Rewrite using rational exponent. Quotient Property Power Property cont’d
Slide 16: Application
Application: Application One method of determining how the x - and y -values for a set of nonlinear data are related is to take the natural logarithm of each of the x - and y -values. If the points are graphed and fall on a line, then you can determine that the x - and y -values are related by the equation ln y = m ln x where m is the slope of the line.
Example 7 – Finding a Mathematical Model: Example 7 – Finding a Mathematical Model The table shows the mean distance from the sun x and the period y (the time it takes a planet to orbit the sun) for each of the six planets that are closest to the sun. In the table, the mean distance is given in terms of astronomical units (where Earth’s mean distance is defined as 1.0), and the period is given in years. Find an equation that relates y and x.
Example 7 – Solution: Example 7 – Solution The points in the table above are plotted in Figure 3.26. From this figure it is not clear how to find an equation that relates y and x . To solve this problem, take the natural logarithm of each of the x - and y -values in the table. This produces the following results. Figure 3.26 Planets Near the Sun
Example 7 – Solution: Example 7 – Solution Now, by plotting the points in the second table, you can see that all six of the points appear to lie in a line (see Figure 3.27). Choose any two points to determine the slope of the line. Using the two points (0.421, 0.632) and (0, 0), you can determine that the slope of the line is Figure 3.27 cont’d
Example 7 – Solution: Example 7 – Solution By the point-slope form, the equation of the line is Y = X where Y = ln y and X = ln x . You can therefore conclude that ln y = ln x. cont’d