Female Infertility

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PowerPoint Presentation for Medical Terminology Course.


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Female Infertility :

Female Infertility Aurora Roberts Professor Baldwin Medical Terminology


Infertility-Female Infertility is defined as the apparent inability of a particular couple to reproduce. Female Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive; unable to get pregnant. *Reference obtained from Collins dictionary of Medicine 2005

Types of infertility:

Types of infertility Infertility is grouped into 2 categories: Primary infertility refers to couples who have not become pregnant after at least 1 year of unprotected sex (intercourse). Secondary infertility refers to couples who have been pregnant at least once, but never again.

Female Infertility may occur when…:

Female Infertility may occur when… A fertilized egg or embryo does not survive once it sticks to the lining of the womb (uterus) The fertilized egg does not attach to the lining of the uterus The eggs cannot move from the ovaries to the womb The ovaries have problems producing eggs.

Female Infertility may be caused by::

Autoimmune Disorders Cancer Clotting Disorders Diabetes Growths (such as fibroids) in the uterus and cervix Ovarian Cysts Endometriosis Thyroid Disease (hypothyroidism) Female Infertility may be caused by:

Autoimmune Disorders/ Disease:

Autoimmune Disorders/ Disease Chronic illnesses that involve almost every human organ system. The body's immune system becomes misdirected, attacking the very organs it was designed to protect. About 75% of autoimmune diseases occur in women, most frequently during the childbearing years making pregnancy an unlikely one.


Cancer Cancer: All forms of malignant growths. There are two broad cases of cancers-those which arise from surface linings (carcinomas) and those which arise from solid tissue (sarcomas). For those who have had treatment that directly affects the reproductive organs, surgery that removes the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries and radiation treatment directed to cancer in the abdomen fertility is affected.

Clotting disorders:

Clotting disorders Clotting disorders is a term used to describe a group of conditions in which there is an increased tendency, often repeated and over an extended period of time, for excessive clotting. Genetic and immune clotting disorders are associated with recurrent miscarriage. If there exists prothrombin mutations, you may also be at risk of having a placental abruption, which happens when the placenta partially or completely separates from the uterine wall before delivery.

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Any disorder of metabolism causing excessive thirst and the production of large volumes of urine. In women with Type 1 diabetes, antibodies are produced that cause the woman's body to attack the male sperm as well as her own eggs. An infection with tuberculosis (highly susceptible) can invade the genital tract which in women, may cause the cervix to become sealed off to entry by the sperm, or an inflammation of the fallopian tubes that often leads to scarring and blockage.

Growths (fibroids):

Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors that develop in the womb (uterus). If a fibroid distorts the wall of the uterus, it can prevent a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus. This may make an in vitro fertilization less likely to be successful, if the fertilized egg doesn't implant after it is transferred to the uterus. Growths (fibroids)

Ovarian Cysts:

Ovarian Cysts An ovarian cyst is just a fluid-filled sac in the ovary. Cysts are very common in the ovaries as a result of the ovulation cycle. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition marked by many small cysts in your ovaries, irregular periods and high levels of certain hormones. PCOS contributes to problems with fertility since the cycle is no longer a regular one. Ovarian Cysts in Uterus Normal Uterus


Endometriosis occurs when cells from the lining of the womb (uterus) grow in other areas of the body. This can lead to pain, irregular bleeding, and problems getting pregnant (infertility); the fallopian tubes may be blocked by scar tissue or can interfere with ovulation. ENDOMETRIOSIS

Thyroid Disease (Hypothyroidism) :

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. Hypothyroidism can cause anovulation (failure to ovulate) directly or by causing elevation in another hormone called prolactin . Thyroid Disease (Hypothyroidism)


Treatment Treatment depends on the cause of infertility, but may involve: Fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) Medicines to treat infections and clotting disorders Medicines that help the woman grow and release eggs from the ovaries


References: http://www.livestrong.org/Get-Help/Learn-About-Cancer/Cancer-Support-Topics/Physical-Effects-of-Cancer/Female-Infertility http://www.hemophilia.org/NHFWeb/MainPgs/MainNHF.aspx?menuid=176&contentid=378 http://www.alternativesurgery.com/education/ovarian-cysts/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001913/ Youngson , Robert. M. “Collins dictionary of Medicine”. Fourth Edition. 2005. http://www.hamiltonthorne.com/products/lasers/xyclone/apps-ivf.htm

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