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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS MACHINERY These are the machinery for handling industrial conflicts so that industrial disputes do not occur. But if preventive machinery fails ,then the industrial dispute settlement machinery should be activated by the government because non settlement of disputes will prove to be very costly to the workers ,management and the society as a whole.

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Preventive machinery Settlement machinery MACHINERY FOR HANDLING INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES Workers participation in management Collective bargaining Grievance procedure Tripartite bodies Code of discipline Standing orders Conciliation Court of enquiry Voluntary Arbitration adjudication Conciliation officers Conciliation board Labour courts Industrial tribunals National tribunals

Preventive machinery:

Preventive machinery The preventive machinery has been set up with a view to creating harmonious relations between labour and management so that dispute do not arise. It comprises the following measures Schemes of workers participation Collective bargaining Grievance procedure Tripartite bodies Code of discipline Standing orders

Schemes of workers participation :

Schemes of workers participation It is a method where by the workers are allowed to be consulted and to have a say in the management of the unit. The important schemes of workers participation are :work committee, joint management council (JMC),shop council and joint council

Collective bargaining :

Collective bargaining According to Dale Yoder, collective bargaining is the term used to describe a situation in which essential conditions of employment are determined by a bargaining process under taken by representatives of a group of workers on the one hand and of one or more employees on the other. Collective bargaining not only includes negotiation, administration and enforcement of the written contracts between the employees and the employers ,but also includes the process of resolving labour management conflicts.

Grievance procedure :

Grievance procedure Grievance are symptoms of conflicts in the enterprises .so they should be handled very promptly and efficiently Coping with grievances forms an important part of a managers job.

Tripartite bodies:

Tripartite bodies Industrial relations in India have been shaped largely by principles and policies evolved through tripartite consultative machinery at industry and national levels. The aim of the consultative machinery is to bring the parties together for mutual settlement of differences in a spirit of cooperation and goodwill Indian Labour Conference (ILC) and Standing Labour Committee(SLC) have been constituted to suggest ways and means to prevent disputes.

Code of discipline:

Code of discipline Code of Discipline is a set of self imposed mutually agreed voluntary principles of discipline and good relations between the management and the workers in industry, In India, Code of Discipline was approved by the 16 th Indian Labour Conference held in 1958.

Standing orders :

Standing orders To prevent the emergency of industrial strife over the condition of employment ,one important measure is the standing orders. The standing orders regulate the condition of employment from the stage of entry to the organization to the stage of exit from the organization. It also act as a code of conduct for the employees during their working life within the organization.


SETTLEMENT MACHINERY This machinery has been provided under the Industrial Dispute Act,1947.It provides a legalistic way of setting the disputes. This machinery comprises following organs Conciliation Court of enquiry Voluntary arbitration Adjudication


Conciliation It is a method of resolving the industrial conflict with the help of third party , who intervenes in the dispute situation upon a request by either or both the parties. Conciliation is a form of mediation . mediation is the act of making active effort to bring two conflicting parties to compromise. The Industrial Dispute Act,1947 provides for conciliation, and can be utilized either by appointing conciliation officers or by constituting a board of conciliation .

Conciliation officer:

Conciliation officer The law provides for the appointment of Conciliation Officer by the Government to conciliate between the parties to the industrial disputes. The conciliation officer is appointed by the appropriate government by notification in the official Gazette .

Board of conciliation:

Board of conciliation The board is tripartite and ad hoc body. It consist of a chair man and two or four members. The chairman is an independent person and other members are nominated in equal numbers by the parties to the dispute.

Court of enquiry:

Court of enquiry In case of the failure of the conciliation proceeding to settle a dispute , the government can appoint a Court of Inquiry to enquire into any matter connected with or relevant to industrial dispute. The court is expected to submit its report within six months.

Voluntary arbitration :

Voluntary arbitration Voluntary arbitration refers to getting the disputes settled through an independent person chosen by the parties involved mutually and voluntarily. Arbitration offers an opportunity for a solution of the dispute through an arbitrator jointly appointed by the parties.

Adjudication :

Adjudication Adjudication consist of settling disputes through intervention by the third party appointed by the government. The law provides the adjudication to be conducted by the Labour court Industrial tribunal National tribunal

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