logging in or signing up a.4. internetworking, lecture 1 junaidq Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 82 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: October 18, 2011 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description Introduction to internetworking Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Part A.4 Building scalable heterogeneous internetsSlide 2: Application Transport Network Data Link Destination Host (Another LAN ) Bits Source Host Application Transport Network Data Link Bits Router (L3 Switch) Topic 3: Internetworking A router / L3 switch inspects destination IP to decide which port(s) to forward to The other LAN may speak/ understand another protocol (addressing/ framing/ MAC, etc.) Reca pSlide 3: No single networking technology is best for all needs The goal of internetworking is universal service across heterogeneous networks Motivations of InternetworkingSlide 4: Logically a single network A communication system that supplies universal service allows arbitrary pairs of computers to communicate Motivations of Internetworking The need for ‘universal service’Slide 5: Source Internetworking exampleSlide 6: Internetworking example Handling heterogeneity Routing Lookup based on Destination IP addressSlide 7: Internetworking example Handling heterogeneity Add a new MAC header conforming to the protocol supported between R1 and the next-hop (decided by the routing protocol).Slide 8: Fragmentation and Reassembly Internetworking example Issues relating to heterogeneitySlide 9: Internet Protocol (IP) Protocol of ‘the Internet’Slide 10: IP takes datagram approach Forwarding table at Switch 2Slide 11: IP Packet FormatSlide 12: Fragmentation & ReassemblySlide 13: Fragmentation & ReassemblySlide 14: Classful / Classless IP addressing / 27 /26 / 25 / 28 /28 / 24 Internet Protocol (IP) Protocol of ‘the Internet’Slide 15: Internet Protocol IP Version 4; Address: 32 bits IP Version 6; Address: 128 bits Hierarchical addressing 2 parts: network , host determined by subnet mask 4,294,967,296 possible addresses = 2 32Slide 16: Classful IP addressesSlide 17: Classful IP addressesSlide 18: Classful IP addressesSlide 19: Classless (VLSM): Subnetting 18.104.22.168/24 22.214.171.124/25 126.96.36.199/25 Borrowing one host bit provides two subnetworks 188.8.131.52 – 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 – 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 – 126.96.36.199Slide 20: Subnetting 188.8.131.52/24 184.108.40.206/26 220.127.116.11/26 18.104.22.168/26 22.214.171.124/26 126.96.36.199 – 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 – 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 – 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 – 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 – 220.127.116.11 Borrowing two host bits provide four subnetworksSlide 21: Subnetting – General Definition Generalizing – for a network with m possible hosts, borrowing n bits provide 2 n subnetworks of m/n hostsSlide 22: Subnetting - ExampleSlide 23: CIDR uses both subnetting and supernetting Subnetting – efficient usage of IP addresses Supernetting – allows more efficient routing /24 /25 /25 Subnetting Supernetting /24 CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing) /24 networkSlide 24: Supernet (Route aggregation) 18.104.22.168 /26 22.214.171.124 /26 126.96.36.199 /26 188.8.131.52 /26 184.108.40.206/26; 220.127.116.11/26; 18.104.22.168/26; 22.214.171.124/26 are directly connected to me 126.96.36.199/24 is directly connected to me Supernetting helps reduce the size of routing tables routers have to storeSlide 25: CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing) 188.8.131.52/20 . . 184.108.40.206/20 . . 220.127.116.11/14 . Contains 2 6 (20 bit: /20) prefixes including the two prefixes on RHS To only advertise the two /20 prefixes on RHS, use 18.104.22.168/19Slide 26: Growth of Routing Table Projected growth of routing table before CIDR Longer prefixes being announced …then filtered But still the routing table grows CIDR worked for a while Source: http://potaroo.netSlide 27: http://www.subnet-calculator.com/cidr.php CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing)Slide 28: Sidenote : How to get IP addresses? RIRsSlide 29: Exercise: Subnetting exercise Make a complete IP addressing plan for the network below assuming that you own IP block 22.214.171.124/23 Islamabad LAN: 254 hosts Karachi LAN: 126 hostsSlide 30: Next lecture: Routing algorithmsSlide 31: Chapter 4 : Internetworking [ P&D ] Section 4.1.1 to 4.1.4 Chapter 4 : The Network Layer [ K&R ] Section 4.4 (in particular) ReferencesSlide 32: [ End of lecture ] You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.