Ch 6.2 Unemployment

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iGCSE Econ CIE

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Economic Indicators:

Economic Indicators Employment & Unemployment Section 6.2

Monitoring employment trends:

Monitoring employment trends Unemployment means that there is a waste of productive resources so government likes to keep a close eye on employment trends by looking at the indicators below

Global trends in employment:

Global trends in employment Between 1999 and 2010 the labour force grew by around 550 million We can see in the right hand graph that since 2008 when there was a global financial crisis that unemployment increased by almost 28 million

Who are the working and dependent populations?:

Who are the working and dependent populations? economically active population = total supply of labour – the labour force Dependent population = Those dependent on the labour force

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Male participation rates have been falling : traditional male-dominated sectors such as mining and manufacturing industries have been shrinking, particularly in many developed countries Female participation rates have been rising : the cost of living is rising in many countries; it is now more acceptable for women to work in many cultures; service industries are growing; there are more part-time jobs The labour force participation rate measures the percentage of the population of working age that is economically active, i.e. either in work or looking for work and therefore able to produce goods and services Globally the labour force participation has fallen due to an increasing number of younger people in education and a growing number of old and retired people in developed countries

Causes and types of unemployment:

Causes and types of unemployment Frictional unemployment: Short-lived unemployment as people change jobs Seasonal unemployment: temporary unemployment because some production and consumer demand is seasonal Structural unemployment: long-lived unemployment caused by industrial decline: many workers are made unemployed and have skills that are no longer wanted Cyclical unemployment: prolonged, widespread unemployment during an economic recession due to falling and depressed aggregate demand Can cause a regional concentration of unemployment

Labour market imperfections:

Labour market imperfections Labour market failures and imperfections may restrict employment opportunities: Powerful trade unions may restrict the supply of labour to an occupation to boost wages The payment of unemployment benefits may reduce the supply of labour and increase voluntary unemployment High non-wage costs, including employers ’ contributions to fund publicly provided unemployment and welfare benefits, may reduce the demand for labour Minimum wage laws may reduce the demand for less skilled labour Labour immobility can prevent unemployed people from moving to new jobs Occupational immobility : inability to move to a new occupation because a worker lacks transferable skills Geographic immobility : inability to move location to take a new job because of family ties and commitments (e.g. children at school), or regional differences in house prices make it unaffordable

The costs of unemployment:

The costs of unemployment The personal costs include: loss of income possible loss of self-esteem, leading to depression, health and marriage problems The costs to government include: loss of income tax revenue higher public spending on unemployment and welfare benefits The costs to an economy Unemployment is a waste of resources: output is lower than what it could otherwise be Taxes may have to rise to pay for increased welfare payments

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