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Total Quality Management : 

1 Total Quality Management

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3 "TQM is a management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society." Definition TQM is composed of three paradigms: Total: : Organization wide, Made up of whole Quality:- Degree of excellece a product or service provide. Management: The system of managing with steps like Plan, Organise, Control, Lead, Staff, etc.

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4 Definition Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes.

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5 Explanation TQM requires that the company maintain this quality standard in all aspects of its business. This requires ensuring that things are done right the first time and that defects and waste are eliminated from operations.

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6 Productivity and TQM Traditional view: Quality cannot be improved without significant losses in productivity. TQM view: Improved quality leads to improved productivity.

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7 Counting Customers Culture The Three aspects of TQM Tools, techniques, and training in their use for analyzing, understanding, and solving quality problems Quality for the customer as a driving force and central concern. Shared values and beliefs, expressed by leaders, that define and support quality.

Evolution of quality –Means & Focus : 

8 Evolution of quality –Means & Focus 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Operation Customers Innovations Quality of Work life Quality Circle Productivity Employee Involvement Quality Employees Empowerment Total Quality Self Directed Teams TQC/TQM Self Directed/Managed Teams

Umbrella Model of TQM : 

9 Umbrella Model of TQM SPC JIT TEI Kaizen Quality Assurance Problem- Solving tools Customer Satisfaction Taguchi Methods

Basic Approach : 

10 Basic Approach A committed and involved management to provide long-term top - to - bottom organizational support. An unwavering focus on the customer, both internally and externally. Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force.

Basic Approach : 

11 Basic Approach Continuous improvement of the business and production process. Treating supplier as partners. Establish performance measures for the processes.

New and Old Cultures : 

12 New and Old Cultures Q Element Previous stage TQM Definition -Product Customer Priorities -Service &Cost Quality Decisions - Short Long Emphasis - Detection Prevention

New and Old Cultures : 

13 New and Old Cultures Errors - Operations System Responsibility- QC Every Body Problem Solving - Managers Teams Procurement- Price Partners/JIT Manager’s Role- Plan Delegate Assign Coach Enforce Mentor

Real Life : 

14 Real Life TQM has being implemented in TVS Group. Boeing Aircraft Reliance Tata L & T HMT ITI

Guru’s of TQM : 

15 Guru’s of TQM Walter.A.Shewhart -TQC &PDSA W.Edwards Deming- 14 Points & PDCA Joseph.M.Juran-Juran’s Trilogy A.Feiganbaum-Customer requirement,CWQC,Employee Involvement, TQC.

Guru’s of TQM : 

16 Guru’s of TQM Kaoru Ishikawa-Disciple of Juran & Feigenbaum. TQC in Japan, SPC, Cause &Effect Diagram,QC. Philips.B.Crosby. Four Absolutes-Quality-Req, Prevention of NC,Zero Defects & Measure of NC. Taguchi.G-Loss Function.

Quality Definitions : 

17 Quality Definitions ISO 9000:2000 Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements. Quantified Q=P/E P-Performance E-Expectations Joseph M. Juran Quality is fitness for use or purpose

Definitions : 

18 Definitions Philips B Crosby Quality is Conformance to requirements W.Edwards Deming A predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost and suited to market Bill Conway **** Development,manufacture,administration And distribution of consistently low cost and products and services that customers need and want.

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19 Quality perspectives Everyone defines Quality based on their own perspective of it. Typical responses about the definition of quality would include: Doing it right the first time Perfection Consistency Eliminating waste Speed of delivery Delighting or pleasing customers Total customer satisfaction and service

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22 Quality perspectives Judgmental perspective “goodness of a product.” “function of a specific, measurable variable and that differences in quality reflect differences in quantity of some product attributes.” Example: Quality and price perceived relationship. Product-based perspective Shewhart’s transcendental definition of quality – “absolute and universally recognizable, a mark of uncompromising standards and high achievement.” Ex:- image: Rolex watches, Lexus cars.

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21 User-based perspective “fitness for intended use.” Individuals have different needs and wants, and hence different quality standards. Example – Nissan offering ‘dud’ models in US markets under the brand name Datson which the US customer didn’t prefer. Value-based perspective “quality product is the one that is as useful as competing products and is sold at a lesser price.” US auto market – Incentives offered by the Big Three are perceived to be compensation for lower quality. Quality perspectives continue…

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22 Manufacturing-based perspective “the desirable outcome of a engineering and manufacturing practice, or conformance to specification.” Engineering specifications are the key! Example: Coca-cola – “quality is about manufacturing a product that people can depend on every time they reach for it.” Quality perspective continue…

Dimensions of Quality : 

23 Dimensions of Quality Product- TV Performance - Primary Characteristics,such as brightness Features –Secondary Characteristics,Remote Control Conformance-Meeting Specifications or Standards Reliability –Consistency of Performance over time-fail Durability- Useful life ,include Repair. Service

Dimensions of Quality : 

24 Dimensions of Quality Durability- Useful life ,include repair. Service-Resolution of problems,ease of repair. Response- Human relations with Customers. Aesthetics-Sensory Features. Reputation- Past performance, Company Image.

Obstacles : 

25 Obstacles Top management commitment Changing Organization Culture Improper planning Lack of Continuous Training & Education

Obstacles : 

26 Obstacles Organization Structure & Departments Data’s & Facts For Effective Decisions Internal & External Customers-Dissatisfaction Empowerment & Teamwork Continuous Improvement

Benefits : 

27 Benefits Improved Quality Employee Participation Team Work Internal & External Customer Satisfaction Productivity ,Communication Profitability & Market Share

TQM Tools : 

TQM Tools 28 Pareto Principle Scatter Plots Control Charts Flow Charts Cause and Effect , Fishbone, Ishikawa Diagram Histogram or Bar Graph Check Lists Check Sheets

Pareto Principle : 

Pareto Principle 29 Suggest that most effect come from relatively few causes. This Pareto chart can be used to compare ”Before And After Situation”. Decide where to apply initial effort for maximum effect. Based on the 85-15 Pareto distribution.

2. Scatter Plots : 

2. Scatter Plots 30 It is a line graph with no line. Here Y axis is used for the characteristics whose behaviour we would like to predict. Often used to point out relationship b/w variables.

3. Control Charts : 

3. Control Charts 31

Control Charts Continue... : 

Control Charts Continue... 32 These are a method of statistical process control. Enable control of distribution of variable rather than attempting to control each individual variation. Upper and lower control and tolerance limits are calculated for a process. The plotted line corresponds to the stability of the process. Action can be taken based on trend rather than on individual variation.

4. Flow Charts : 

4. Flow Charts 33 These are pictures,symbols or text coupled with lines,arrows on lines show direction of flow. Develop a common understanding of a process by those involved. No particular standardisation of symbology. Very successfully implemented in various organisation.

5. Cause and Effect , Fishbone, Ishikawa Diagram : 

5. Cause and Effect , Fishbone, Ishikawa Diagram 34

Cause & effect continue… : 

Cause & effect continue… 35 Cause & effect is a method for analysing process dispersion. Main purpose is to relate causes & effects. Three main types are:- 1.Dispersion analysis 2.Process classification. 3.Cause enumeration. Help inidentify root cause of the quality failure.

6. Histogram : 

36 6. Histogram

6. Histogram Continue…. : 

6. Histogram Continue…. 37 Is a graphic summary of variation in a set of data. It enables to see the pattern that are difficult to see in simple tables of number. It is a graph in which continious variable is clustered into categories and the value of each cluster is plotted to give a series of bars.

7. Check Sheet : 

7. Check Sheet 38 It is adata recording form that has been designed to interpret results from the form itself. Used for the collection of quantitative or qualitative repetive data. Adaptable to different data gathering situation. Easy & quick to use.

8. Check List : 

8. Check List 39 The check lists contain items that are important or relevant to a specific issue or situation. Used under operational conditions. Its primary purpose is for guiding operations and for collecting data.

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40 Thanks…… Seema jakhar 3006 MBA(H)-2.1

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