automotive battery

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DO YOU STILL REMEMBER THE DIFFERENT SYMBOLS OF THE ELEMENTS FOUND IN PERIODIC TABLE? : 

DO YOU STILL REMEMBER THE DIFFERENT SYMBOLS OF THE ELEMENTS FOUND IN PERIODIC TABLE? IF DOES, WE WILL TRY TO EXAMINE OURSELVES HOW THESE SYMBOLS STANDS FOR.

H=? : 

H=?

H= HYDROGEN : 

H= HYDROGEN

O=? : 

O=?

O= OXYGEN : 

O= OXYGEN

Pb=? : 

Pb=?

Pb=LEAD : 

Pb=LEAD

S=? : 

S=?

S=SULFUR : 

S=SULFUR

H+O=? : 

H+O=?

2H+O=WATER : 

2H+O=WATER

Pb+O2= ? : 

Pb+O2= ?

Pb+O2= PbO2 LEAD DIOXIDE : 

Pb+O2= PbO2 LEAD DIOXIDE

H2+SO4=? : 

H2+SO4=?

H2+SO4=H2SO4 SULFURIC ACID : 

H2+SO4=H2SO4 SULFURIC ACID

Slide 17: 

What are these processes that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another?

Slide 18: 

Chemical reaction

Pb + : 

Pb +

Pb + PbO2 + : 

Pb + PbO2 +

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- : 

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4-

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ : 

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ ? 2PbSO4 + 2H2O, : 

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ ? 2PbSO4 + 2H2O,

How did you find the problem? : 

How did you find the problem? Easy ? If you still do not know the answer, then you will need to ask the book about this or else asking the chemistry teacher.

Do you really want to know the answer? : 

Do you really want to know the answer? We will answer that after discussing the topic.

AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY : 

AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY Joseph S. Yatan

Slide 27: 

A lead-acid storage battery is an electrochemical device that produces voltage and delivers electrical current. The battery is the primary "source" of electrical energy used in vehicles today. It's important to remember that a battery does not store electricity, but rather it stores a series of chemicals, and through a chemical process electricity is produced. Basically, two different types of lead in an acid mixture react to produce an electrical pressure called voltage. This electrochemical reaction changes chemical energy to electrical energy and is the basis for all automotive batteries.

The Battery : 

The Battery The battery is the main source of electrical energy on vehicles. The battery powers these major electrical systems:

Slide 29: 

STARTING Performs the function by changing electrical energy from the battery to mechanical energy in the starting motor

Slide 30: 

CHARGING Converts the mechanical energy of the engine into electrical energy to charge the battery

Slide 31: 

IGNITION The purpose of the ignition system is to create a spark that will ignite the fuel-air mixture in the cylinder of an engine at exactly the right, instant, and do it at the right time

Slide 32: 

LIGHTING/ACCESSORIES

Slide 33: 

STARTING IGNITION CHARGING LIGHTING/ACCESSORIES

BatteryFunctions : 

BatteryFunctions Engine off - The battery provides energy to operate lighting and accessories.   Engine starting - The battery provides energy to operate the starter motor and ignition system during starting.   Engine running - The charging system provides most of the energy required with the engine running; the battery acts as a voltage stabilizer to protect voltage sensitive circuits, articularly digital circuits. The battery provides energy to operate lights and accessories and to start the engine. It also serves as a voltage stabilizer.

Battery Type : 

Battery Type Lead-Acid - Virtually all automotive batteries are lead-acid batteries. Two different metals, both lead compounds,are immersed in an acid electrolyte. The chemical reaction produced provides electrical energy. Low Maintenance/No Maintenance - Some manufacturers use this terminology. Low maintenance" means that electrolyte can be added. No maintenance" means that the battery is sealed. Vented - Most batteries have removable vented caps that are used to check electrolyte level and add distilled water as necessary to restore the level. The caps also allow hydrogen gas, a byproduct of battery charging, to escape during charging. Sealed - Some lead-acid batteries are sealed, that is, there are no removable caps to check electrolyte or replenish it. Some of these batteries have a small eye" to indicate charge level. Still others are sealed, but include connections to external vent tubes.

Note : 

Note For all types of batteries, always follow the manufacturers’ recommendations for charging and testing.

BATTERY CONSTRUCTION : 

BATTERY CONSTRUCTION

Slide 39: 

1. CASE Container which holds and protects all battery components and electrolyte separates cells, and provides space at the bottom for Sediment (active materials washed off plates). Translucent level without removing vent caps.

Slide 40: 

2. COVER Permanently sealed to the top of the case; provides outlets for Terminal posts, vent holes for venting of gases and for battery Maintenance (checking electrolyte, adding water).

Slide 41: 

3. PLATES Positive and negative plates have grid framework of antimony and lead alloy. Active material is pasted to the grid...brown-colored lead dioxide (PbO2) on positive plates, gray-colored sponge lead (Pb) on the negative plates. The number and size of the plates determine current capability...batteries with large plates or many plates produce more current than batteries with small plates or few plates.

Slide 42: 

4.SEPARATORS Thin, porous insulators (woven glass or plastic envelopes) are placed between positive and negative plates. They allow passage of electrolyte, Yet prevent the plates from touching and shorting out.

Slide 43: 

5. CELLS An assembly of connected positive and negative plates with separators in between is called a cell or element. When immersed in electrolyte, a cell produces about 2.1 volts (regardless of the number or size of plates). Battery cells are connected in series, so the number of cells determines the Battery voltage. A “12 volt” battery has six cells.

Slide 44: 

6.CELL CONNECTORS Heavy, cast alloy metal straps are welded to the negative terminal of one cell and the positive terminal of the adjoining cell until all six cells are connected in series.

Slide 45: 

7.CELL PARTITIONS Part of the case, the partitions separate each cell.

Slide 46: 

8.TERMINAL POSTS Positive and negative posts (terminal) on the case top have thick, heavy cables connected to them. These cables connect the battery to the vehicle’s electrical system (positive) and to the ground (negative)

Slide 47: 

9. VENT CAPS Types include individual filler plugs, strip-type, or box-type. They allow controlled release of hydrogen gas during charging (vehicle operation). Removed, they permit checking electrolyte and, if necessary, adding water.

Slide 48: 

10. ELECTROLYTE A mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O). It reacts chemically with the active materials in the plates to create and electrical pressure (voltage). And , it conducts the electrical current produced by the pressure from plate to plate. A fully charged battery will have about 36% acid and 64% water.

How BatteriesWork : 

How BatteriesWork The function of a lead acid cell is based on a simple chemical reaction. When two dissimilar metals are immersed in an acid solution, a chemical reaction produces a voltage. Using this reaction, a lead-acid battery can be discharged and charged many times.

There are four stages in the discharging-charging cycle: : 

There are four stages in the discharging-charging cycle: Fully Charged Discharging Fully Discharged Charging

Slide 51: 

Positive plate covered with lead oxide (PbO2) Negative plate covered with a sponge lead (Pb) Electrolyte contains water (H2O) and a sulfuric acid (H2SO4) FULLY CHARGED

Slide 52: 

Current flows in the cell from the negative to the positive plates. Electrolyte separates into hydrogen (H2) and sulfate (SO4). The free sulfate combines with the lead (both lead oxide and sponge lead) and becomes lead sulfate (PbSO4). The free hydrogen and oxygen combine to form more water, diluting the electrolyte. DISCHARGING

Slide 53: 

Both plates are fully sulfated. Electrolyte is diluted to mostly water. DISCHARGED

Slide 54: 

Reverses the chemical reaction that took place during discharging. Sulfate (SO4) leaves the positive and negative plates and combines with hydrogen (H2) to become sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Hydrogen bubbles form at the negative plates; oxygen appears at the positive plates. Free oxygen (O2) combines with lead (Pb) at the positive plate to become lead oxide (PbO2). CHARGING

Pb + : 

Pb +

Pb + PbO2 + : 

Pb + PbO2 +

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- : 

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4-

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ : 

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ ? 2PbSO4 + 2H2O, : 

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ ? 2PbSO4 + 2H2O,

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ ? 2PbSO4 + 2H2O, E = +2.1 V : 

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ ? 2PbSO4 + 2H2O, E = +2.1 V

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ ? 2PbSO4 + 2H2O, E = +2.1 V : 

Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4- + 2H+ ? 2PbSO4 + 2H2O, E = +2.1 V LEAD ACID BATTERY

Capacity Ratings : 

Capacity Ratings An automotive battery must be able to crank the engine for starting and still have enough reserve capacity to operate the vehicle systems once the engine starts.

Battery capacity is: : 

Battery capacity is: The amount of electrical energy the battery can deliver when fully charged. Determined by the size and total number of plates and the volume and strength of the electrolyte. Refer to the manufacturer’s specification for information specific to a particular vehicle.

Cold-CrankingAmperes : 

Cold-CrankingAmperes While it is operating the starter, the battery experiences a large discharge current. The measure of a battery’s ability to provide this current is expressed as Cold-Cranking Amperes, or CCA Rating. The CCA Rating specifies (in amperes) the discharge current a fully charged battery can deliver ...· at 0° F (-18° C),for 30 seconds, while maintaining at least 1.2 volts per cell (or 7.2 volts total for a six-cell, 12-volt battery).

Slide 66: 

Batteries in Toyota vehicles typically have a CCA rating between 350 to 560 amperes, depending on vehicle model.

Reserve Capacity(RC) : 

Reserve Capacity(RC) The battery must provide reserve energy for the ignition system andfor lights and accessories if the charging system fails. The Reserve Capacity rating measures (in minutes) the amount of time a fully charged battery can discharge at 25 amperes, while maintaining a voltage of at least 1.75 volts per cell (total of 10.5 volts for a 6-cell, 12-volt battery).

Slide 68: 

Batteries in Toyota vehicles typically have an RC rating between 55 and 115 minutes, depending on vehicle model.

Ampere-Hours(AH) : 

Ampere-Hours(AH) The Ampere-Hours, or AH rating, is another important measure of a battery’s design performance. The AH rating expresses the discharge current a fully charged battery can deliver for 20 hours at 80° F (27° C), while maintaining a voltage of at least 1.75 volts per cell (total of 10.5 volts for a 6-cell, 12-volt battery).

Slide 70: 

Batteries in Toyota vehicles typically have an AH rating between 40 and 80 amp-hours, depending on vehicle model.

Example : 

Example A battery that can deliver 4 amps for 20 hours is rated at 80 amp-hours.

Slide 72: 

Alessandro Volta inventor of the electric battery.Volta’s discovery of the decomposition of water by an electrical current laid the foundation of electrochemistry . © Cadex Electronics Inc.

References : 

References 1.www.repairpal.com 2. www.2carpro.com 3. www.auto101.com 4. Toyota technical training

Slide 74: 

1. Battery electrolyte is a mixture of water and: Lead peroxide. Sulfuric acid. Lead sulfate. All of the above 2. The plates of a discharged battery are? Two similar metals in the presence of an electrolyte. Two similar metals in the presence of water. Two dissimilar metals in the presence of an electrolyte. Two dissimilar metals in the presence of water.

Thank you very much. : 

Thank you very much. God Bless us.

Assigment : 

Assigment Use ½ half sheet of yellow paper and answer the following questions. Use the internet for the reference of your answers. How can we service the auto battery? What is the life span of the battery? What is the total voltage of one automotive battery?why? If you have your car, how will choose the right battery to purchase? How to test the battery drain?

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