Unit 3: Testing and Counseling

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HIV/AIDS Training for the Dental Health WorkerUnit Three : 

HIV/AIDS Training for the Dental Health WorkerUnit Three Developed by Theresa Allyn Based on Washington State HIV AIDS Curriculum Sponsored by the WSDA 1 Copyright 2/2008

HIV/AIDS Testing and Counseling Unit Three : 

HIV/AIDS Testing and Counseling Unit Three Developed by Theresa Allyn Based on Washington State HIV AIDS Curriculum Sponsored by WSDA 2 Copyright 2/2008

A Note from your Instructor : 

A Note from your Instructor Take heart, this unit is not near as long as unit two. It contains interesting information on the concerns of HIV diagnoses as well as the importance of confidentiality issues. It contains ideas for practice risk management in working with HIV/AID patients. Remember to connect to the internet before playing the presentation so you can visit live links. Also remember that you can pause the audio presentation while you are out on the web and return to the presentation by using the x at the top of the screen and pressing the play button on the audio player. This material is based on the AIDS What you Must Know Washington State Curriculum. 3 Copyright 2/2008

Unit Three Overview : 

Unit Three Overview Copyright 2/2008 4 Testing and Counseling What types of HIV tests are available? What does HIV test information mean? How does the "Window period" effect testing? What is Pre-test counseling? What is Post-test counseling? What are recommendations for testing related to sexual assault? What is the partner notification program?

Testing and Counseling : 

Testing and Counseling The CDC believes that many people in the U.S. have HIV but have not been tested for it. These people do not know they are infected and that they need medical care. Also, they can unknowingly pass HIV infection on to others. Some people do not find out that they are infected with HIV until they get sick or show symptoms and go to a clinic or hospital and get a test to find out their HIV status. Since most people don’t have symptoms for years they do not find out their status until later in the disease progression. 5 Copyright 2/2008

Testing and Counseling Continued… : 

Testing and Counseling Continued… By the time they find out they are infected, they have missed opportunities to take care of their health and avoid passing the infection on to others. It is important for anyone at risk of HIV infection to get tested. Those who are uninfected can learn to take steps to avoid infection and those who are infected can take steps to take care of their own health as well as to avoid passing the infection on to others. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgub30uE1Kw Click below to see a short video on why everyone should be tested 6 Copyright 2/2008

HIV Antibody Tests : 

HIV Antibody Tests The first HIV antibody test was available in 1985. Since then, new HIV antibody tests have been developed and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Currently, these antibody tests have a two step process of a screening test and, when the screening test is reactive, a confirmatory test. www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXII_6/index.htm For more information and to view the original artwork and learn about rapid testing click on or visit the following link: 7 Copyright 2/2008

Step 1: The Screening Test : 

Step 1: The Screening Test 8 Copyright 2/2008

Step 2: Confirmatory Testing : 

Step 2: Confirmatory Testing 9 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options Blood The most frequently used HIV antibody test is a blood-based test. This test detects HIV antibodies in blood. Depending on test type, blood from a venipuncture or fingerstick will be used. This is the test that is used most often in public health clinics and doctor offices. Most rapid screening tests use fingerstick blood. As with all screening tests, “reactive” blood fluid screening tests must be confirmed with a Western Blot test. For most HIV testing, this confirmatory testing is done on the same sample in the laboratory. For reactive rapid tests, an additional sample needs to be drawn and sent to the lab for the confirmatory Western Blot. HIV antibody tests are designed to detect HIV antibodies in blood, urine, or oral fluid samples. 10 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options Oral Fluid This test detects HIV antibodies in the mucous membrane of the mouth. The oral test kit uses a special collection device that looks like a toothbrush. No needles are used. There are some rapid tests that use oral fluids. Many public health clinics also offer oral fluid testing. Some provide rapid oral fluid testing. As with all screening tests, positive oral fluid screening tests must be confirmed with a Western Blot test. It is important to note that although antibodies to HIV can be found in saliva and oral fluids, these fluids do not contain sufficient amount of the virus to be infectious and therefore, are not considered a risk for transmitting the virus. The virus is the disease. The virus causes infection. Antibodies are the immune system’s response to the disease. Antibodies do not cause disease, they fight the infection. 11 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options Urine A urine-based test for HIV antibodies is available for use only in physician's offices or medical clinics. It tests for HIV antibodies in the urine. It is important to note that, even though antibodies to HIV can be found in urine, urine is not considered a risk for transmitting the virus. As with all screening tests, positive urine HIV screening test must be confirmed with a Western Blot test, which can be done on the same specimen. 12 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options Rapid HIV Test The rapid HIV test is a screening test that can provide results in less than an hour. Rapid testing can be conducted on either blood and/or oral mucosal transudate, depending on the type of rapid test. As with all screening tests, any “reactive” positive rapid test must be confirmed with a conventional Western Blot test. 13 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options Home HIV Test Kits Currently, the only licensed and FDA-approved test kit for home HIV antibody testing is the "Home Access HIV-1 Test System“ manufactured by Home Access Health Corporation. If you are unsure if an HIV test is FDA approved, you can always look for the test on the list of FDA approved HIV tests: http://www.fda.gov/cber/products/testkits.htm The test requires a few drops of blood, which is mailed to the company in a safe mailer. If the screening test is reactive, a confirmatory Western Blot test is done by the same laboratory so that final results are available to clients. The client calls the company to learn their results over the phone. 14 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options Internet Test Kits Although other "home test" kits may be ordered over the internet, they may not be approved by the FDA. They are not guaranteed to be accurate. It is not recommended to use any test which has not been approved by the FDA. 15 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options P24 Antigen Test This blood test measures a core protein of HIV. This protein occurs during primary infection (the first few weeks of infection) but may disappear as soon as antibodies to the virus are present. Because of this, and because of the expense of the test, antigen tests are currently only available in specific circumstances. 16 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options Plasma HIV RNA or Proviral DNA Tests These blood tests may be run on people with suspected new HIV infection. They are expensive and not used as screening tests for the general public. However, anyone who has had a potential exposure to HIV through unprotected sex or sharing needles, and who presents with symptoms of primary infection (usually seen within the first two weeks of infection with HIV) should ask their medical practitioner if this test is advisable. 17 Copyright 2/2008

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options : 

Different Antibody Testing Specimen Options HIV Viral Load Test This test measures the amount of HIV in an infected person's bloodstream. It is rarely used to diagnose HIV infection. It is most often used in individuals who are HIV-positive to measure the effectiveness of antiretroviral medications used to treat HIV infection. 18 Copyright 2/2008

Who should be tested? : 

Who should be tested? Anyone who has put themselves at risk through anal, vaginal or oral sex, or shared needles, and anyone who has had an occupational exposure may benefit from HIV testing. Many people may have partners who have risk factors, and these people (along with their partners) should consider testing. 19 Copyright 2/2008

Where to Test for HIV? : 

Where to Test for HIV? People may get an HIV test at public health departments, through their medical provider, family planning or sexually transmitted disease clinics, and in some cases at community clinics. Call the Washington State HIV/AIDS hotline at 1-800- 272-2437 for a referral to a public health, family planning or community clinic in your county. 20 Copyright 2/2008

Confidential Testing : 

Confidential Testing With confidential HIV testing, the client gives their real name, and the information about their testing is maintained in medical records. Their results are confidential. Results and testing information are not released to others except when medically necessary or under special circumstances including when they sign a release for the results to be given to another person or agency. 21 Copyright 2/2008

Anonymous Testing : 

Anonymous Testing HIV is a reportable condition. Confidential HIV results are reported to local public health officials. An anonymous HIV antibody test means that the client doesn’t give their name and the person who orders or performs the test does not maintain a record of the name of the person they are testing. If you want to know where to get tested anonymously, call the Washington State HIV/AIDS hotline at 1-800-272-2437 for information about anonymous testing in your area. 22 Copyright 2/2008

Informed Consent Required : 

Informed Consent Required HIV testing can only be done with the person's consent. Consent may be contained within a comprehensive consent for medical treatment. It can be verbal or written, but must be specific to HIV and must be documented. There are some rare exceptions where a person can be tested without their consent (including source testing relating to occupation exposures and legally-mandated situations specified in Washington State law). 23 Copyright 2/2008

Testing Information And Risk Assessment Required : 

Testing Information And Risk Assessment Required Testing can be a Time to Learn about: How HIV is transmitted and way in which it can be prevented; The meaning of HIV test results and the importance of obtaining the results; and As appropriate, the availability of anonymous testing and the differences between anonymous and confidential testing. People tested for HIV should be assessed for their risk of infection and, unless previously tested and declining information, they should be provided with appropriate information about the test. 24 Copyright 2/2008

HIV Antibody Test Results : 

HIV Antibody Test Results 25 Copyright 2/2008

HIV Antibody Test Results Continued… : 

HIV Antibody Test Results Continued… 26 Copyright 2/2008

Negative Results : 

Negative Results If the test result is negative, it means one of two things: Either the person is not infected with the virus, or The person became infected recently and has not produced enough antibodies to be detected by the test. If a person is concerned about a recent incident, they should test three months from the date of their last possible exposure. A negative test result does not mean a person is immune to HIV. If risky behavior continues, infection may occur. 27 Copyright 2/2008

Positive Results : 

Positive Results A positive confirmatory test indicates the presence of HIV antibodies. Positive results mean the person is infected with HIV. They can spread the virus to others through unsafe sexual practices, sharing contaminated injection equipment and/or breastfeeding; and the person is infected for life. 28 Copyright 2/2008

Indeterminate Results : 

Indeterminate Results 29 Copyright 2/2008

Indeterminate Results Continued… : 

Indeterminate Results Continued… Indeterminate results for low risk clients are rare. It is possible for some uninfected people to always test indeterminate (due to the cross reaction from protein bands from something other than HIV). Other uninfected people who first test indeterminate may clear their bodies of those other proteins that are causing the cross-reaction and in subsequent tests, test negative. Still others go back and forth between indeterminate and negative. Counseling messages should explain that only HIV positive tests indicate infection with HIV; and, that some people test indeterminate because of other (non-HIV) proteins in their bodies that register on the test. No further testing for other diseases is indicated. 30 Copyright 2/2008

Advantages of Early Testing for HIV Infection : 

Advantages of Early Testing for HIV Infection New drug therapies for HIV infection can sustain an infected person's health for long periods of time. Early detection allows people with HIV the option to receive medical treatment sooner, take better care of their immune system, and stay healthier longer. Additionally, early detection of HIV allows people to take precautions not to infect others. 31 Copyright 2/2008

HIV Counseling with HIV Testing : 

HIV Counseling with HIV Testing Washington State law (WAC 246-100-207 and -209) requires that HIV test counseling be offered to all clients who are at risk for HIV or who request counseling. At the same time, the law states that persons who refuse counseling should not be denied an HIV test (clients can refuse counseling); and, that the person conducting the HIV test does not have to provide the counseling themselves. They can refer the client to another person or agency for counseling (the person testing the client does not have to provide the counseling themselves). The person who provides HIV test counseling to clients should direct the counseling towards increasing the client’s understanding of their own risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV; motivating the client to reduce their risk; and assisting the client to build skills to reduce their risk. 32 Copyright 2/2008

Pre-test Counseling : 

Pre-test Counseling Counseling Should: Assist the individual to set realistic behavior-change goals and establish strategies for reducing their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. Provide appropriate risk reduction skills-building opportunities to support their behavior change goals Provide or refer for other appropriate prevention, support or medical services. Pre-test counseling should be based on the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Revised Guidelines for HIV Counseling, Testing and Referral recommendations http:// www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/testing/index.htm#guidelines 33 Copyright 2/2008

Post-test Counseling : 

Post-test Counseling Everyone who tests negative should be offered an individual counseling session at the time they receive their test results. This counseling can be provided by the person providing the results or can be a referral for the client to receive these services at another agency. 34 Copyright 2/2008

Post-test Counseling Continued… : 

Post-test Counseling Continued… Everyone who tests positive should be offered an individual counseling session at the time they receive their test results. This counseling can be provided by the person providing the results or can be a referral for the client to receive these services at another agency. 35 Copyright 2/2008

Testing Confidentiality : 

Testing Confidentiality Information about a person’s HIV test and results is confidential information and must not be shared with others. People who perform HIV counseling and testing in public health departments or health districts must sign strict confidentiality agreements. These agreements regulate the personal information that may be revealed in counseling and testing sessions, and test results. HIV test results are kept in locked files, with only a few appropriate staff members having access to them. 36 Copyright 2/2008

HIV Testing: Pregnancy : 

HIV Testing: Pregnancy Health care providers caring for pregnant clients are required by Washington State law to ensure HIV counseling and testing for each pregnant woman who is seeking prenatal care (RCW 70.24.095 and WAC 246-100-208). All pregnant women are to be offered an HIV test and should be tested unless they refuse the HIV test. Those who refuse HIV testing must sign a form saying that they “opt-out” of the HIV test. HIV-infected women can reduce the chance of transmitting the virus to their children if they take AZT during pregnancy and delivery. 37 Copyright 2/2008

HIV Testing: Sexual Assault : 

HIV Testing: Sexual Assault Sexual assault is prevalent in the U.S. More than 300,000 women and almost 93,000 men are raped annually, according to the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS). Based on existing crime report data, an estimated 40% of female rape victims are under age 18; and most sexual assault victims know their assailant. Men are also victims of sexual assault; however they are much less likely to report being assaulted so data and reporting are not accurate. Apart from the emotional and physical trauma that accompanies sexual assault, many victims are concerned about HIV. 38 Copyright 2/2008

Sexual Assault HIV Risks : 

Sexual Assault HIV Risks 39 Copyright 2/2008

Other Concerns with Sexual Assault : 

Other Concerns with Sexual Assault The risk of STDs and pregnancy are much higher than HIV. Victims of sexual assault should get testing for STDs, and if female, she should take emergency contraception. The emergency contraception hotline number (1-888-668-2528) should be provided by “telephone” rape counselors or other counselors. Most experts recommend that a sexual assault victim go directly to the nearest hospital emergency room, without changing their clothing, bathing or showering first. Trained staff in the emergency room will counsel the victim, and may also offer testing or referral for HIV, STDs, and pregnancy. It is common practice for the emergency room physician to take DNA samples of blood or semen from the vagina, rectum, etc. which can be used as evidence against the attacker. Some emergency departments may refer sexual assault survivors to the local health jurisdiction for HIV testing. Many people feel that the emergency room setting is a profoundly unpleasant time to question a sexual assault victim regarding her/his sexual risks, etc. However, testing shortly after a sexual assault will provide baseline information on her/his status for the various infections. This information can be useful for the victim and health care provider, especially for follow-up care and treatment. Additionally, baseline information can be used for legal and criminal action against the assailant. All testing to be used for baseline information and legal action should be done confidentially. 40 Copyright 2/2008

Assailant Testing : 

Assailant Testing In Washington State, only the victims of convicted sexual offenders may learn the attacker's HIV status. The victim needs to consider whether to start post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) independently of the source's test result, because the time between the attack and the conviction will likely be longer than the 24-48 hours recommended to start PEP. 41 Copyright 2/2008

Partner notification : 

Partner notification Partner notification is a voluntary service provided to HIV positive people and their sex and/or injection equipment-sharing partners. This service is provided using a variety of strategies to maintain the confidentiality of both the HIV-infected client and the partners. HIV-infected people are counseled about the importance of their partners being notified of exposure to HIV and offered an HIV test. Clients can notify their partners themselves or have public health staff notify their partners. 42 Copyright 2/2008

Partner Notification Cont. : 

Partner Notification Cont. When public health staff notify partners, they notify them of their exposure, provide counseling and information, and offer HIV testing without informing the partner who tested positive. Partner notification is a critical tool to inform partners of their exposure so that they can test for HIV. If uninfected, they can take steps to ensure that they do not become infected. If infected, they can take steps to take care of their health and ensure that they do not pass the virus on to others. HIV and AIDS are both reportable conditions in Washington State. 43 Copyright 2/2008

Unit Three Quiz : 

Unit Three Quiz Directions: Get a piece of paper and pen and write your answers to the following 10 questions. When finished check your answers on the following answer slides. Keep each self quiz as proof that you have completed the unit. 44 Copyright 2/2008

Quiz for Unit Three : 

Quiz for Unit Three True or False: Pre-test counseling should be based on the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Revised Guidelines for HIV Counseling. True or False: Everyone who tests negative needs no counseling or follow up. True or False: To follow HIV testing guidelines HIV testing results are kept in locked files, with only a few appropriate staff members having access to them. True or False: Health care providers caring for pregnant clients are not required by Washington State law to ensure HIV counseling and testing for each pregnant woman who is seeking prenatal care. True or False: All pregnant women are to be offered an HIV test and should be tested unless they refuse the HIV test. Those who refuse HIV testing must sign a form saying that they “opt-out” of the HIV test. 45 Copyright 2/2008

Quiz for Unit Three : 

Quiz for Unit Three True or False: It is not helpful for HIV-infected women to take AZT during pregnancy and delivery but after the baby is born it is effective. True or False: Based on existing crime report data, an estimated 40% of female rape victims are under age 18. True or False: According to CDC, the odds of HIV infection from a sexual assault in the U.S. are 2 in 1,000. True or False: The concept of Window period does not apply to a rape victim. True or False: Currently, if the infection is untreated, the average time from HIV infection to death is 10-12 years. 46 Copyright 2/2008

Answers for Quiz Unit Three : 

Answers for Quiz Unit Three True or False: Pre-test counseling should be based on the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Revised Guidelines for HIV Counseling. True or False: Everyone who tests negative needs no counseling or follow up. True or False: To follow HIV testing guidelines HIV testing results are kept in locked files, with only a few appropriate staff members having access to them. True or False: Health care providers caring for pregnant clients are not required by Washington State law to ensure HIV counseling and testing for each pregnant woman who is seeking prenatal care. True or False: All pregnant women are to be offered an HIV test and should be tested unless they refuse the HIV test. Those who refuse HIV testing must sign a form saying that they “opt-out” of the HIV test. True or False: It is not helpful for HIV-infected women to take AZT during pregnancy and delivery but after the baby is born it is effective. True or False: Based on existing crime report data, an estimated 40% of female rape victims are under age 18. True or False: According to CDC, the odds of HIV infection from a sexual assault in the U.S. are 2 in 1,000. True or False: The concept of Window period does not apply to a rape victim. True or False: Currently, if the infection is untreated, the average time from HIV infection to death is 10-12 years. 47 Copyright 2/2008

Congratulations : 

Congratulations You have completed Unit Three of the HIV/AIDS online learning course. You are half way through the course. You are now ready to move to Unit Four! 48 Copyright 2/2008

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