How To Cite Sources

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How To Cite Sources in Your Paper : 

How To Cite Sources in Your Paper Instructional Technology Practice

There are MANY ways to do this… : 

There are MANY ways to do this… You want variety in your paper Citations like “Smith says”, “Williams says” used every time is BORING

Direct Quotations : 

Direct Quotations Exact wording; you MUST use Quotation marks “ ”. They can be short (4 typed lines or less) or long (more than 4 typed lines)

Paraphrasing : 

Paraphrasing You may put an author’s statement or research into your own words You still need to cite that author because the idea or fact has been “borrowed”

What do I do with the Author’s Name? : 

What do I do with the Author’s Name? It can appear in the sentence itself OR in parenthesis following the quoted or paraphrased sentence. If there is a page number, it always appears in parenthesis. NO-NO: Smith says on page 52 that, “ ” YES: Smith says, “ ” (52).

PREFACE QUOTES : 

PREFACE QUOTES Preface: an introduction to the quotation. A sentence should NEVER start with a quotation You must always write something first to make the quote flow with the rest of the text Don’t “shout out” that you are using a quote- that sounds silly! “Richards proves this in this quote:”

With an Organization as an Author : 

With an Organization as an Author Author: The National School Safety and Security Services Page: 23 Practice #1: The National School Safety and Security Services states that “Some schools banned pagers and cell phones starting a decade ago because of their connection to drug and gang activity …” (23).

Slide 8: 

Practice #2: The banning of cell phones and pagers is not something new: “Some schools banned pagers and cell phones starting a decade ago because of their connection to drug and gang activity, as well as due to the disruption to classes” (The National School Safety and Security Services 23).

Slide 9: 

Practice #3: The NSSSS explains that cell phones and pagers have been eliminated from school settings because they encourage violence and cause distractions (23).

Work with Author but no page # : 

Work with Author but no page # Practice #1: Cell phones can be beneficial to a school setting: “In terms of school safety, cell phones have been used … for calling in bomb threats to schools” (Taillon).

Slide 11: 

Practice #2: Greg Taillon says that cell phones have been used for prevention “by students in a number of cases nationwide for calling in bomb threats to schools.”

Punctuation : 

Punctuation Period, commas, and colons should always appear AFTER the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are part of the quoted passage. Gerves says, “If the parents don’t step in, then what?” (24).

Citing Multiple Works by the SAME Author : 

Citing Multiple Works by the SAME Author (Smith “Toward” 170) (Bartholomae “When” 134) Practice #6 It is has been reported that “Computers are not useful tools for small children” (Lightenor “Too”); however, “Early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child’s second and third year” (Lightenor “Hand” 17).

Work With No Author : 

Work With No Author Just use the work’s title in quotation marks If the title is long, an abbreviated version may be used

Slide 15: 

Practice 1: The efforts to eliminate electronics in the school systems are not new: “New York’s 1.1 million student school system has banned beepers and other communication devices since the late 1980s” (“School Cell Phone Ban” 32).

Slide 16: 

New York has been struggling with this problem for quite some time. In fact, “New York’s 1.1 million student school system has banned beepers and other communication devices since the late 1980s” (“School Cell Phone Ban” 32).

Slide 17: 

New York has been struggling with this problem for quite some time. “School Cell Phone Ban” reveals, “New York’s 1.1 million student school system has banned beepers and other communication devices since the late 1980s”(32).

Slide 18: 

Practice 1: Various school systems have been forbidding the use of electronics. In particular, “New York’s 1.1 million school system has banned beepers and other communication devices since the late 1980s” (“School Cell Phone Ban”).

Use transitions to Preface too! : 

Use transitions to Preface too! In particular, For example, In addition, the author also confirms that, “ ” However, “ Don’t forget the comma after an introductory phrase…

Long Quotations : 

Long Quotations Despite the distractions and safety issues, cell phones are clearly a convenient mechanism for students today. Charles Smith supports the appropriate uses of cell phones in public schools: Many students depend on cell phones to coordinate plans with their friends and family. Mobile phones are especially useful for obtaining rides home from after school activities. The legal nature of school supervision, therefore, is facilitated by these devices. Coaches, club moderators, extra-curricular supervisors, and students alike benefit under these circumstances. In that context, cell phones most definitely should be available for student use on school property. The question is where and when they make the calls. (27)

Long Quotations : 

Long Quotations Place quotations longer than 4 typed lines in a free-standing block and omit the quotation marks. Start the quote on a new line, indented one inch from the left margin and maintain double spacing This time, the citation comes AFTER the punctuation marks

Adding Words : 

Adding Words If you add a word or words, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text. Jan Harold Brunvard, in an essay on urban legends, states, “Some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale” (78).

Omitting Words : 

Omitting Words Indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis marks surrounded by brackets In an essay on urban legends, Brunvard notes, “Some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale … and in a short amount of time a lively exchange of details occurs” (78).

Practice Omitting Words : 

Practice Omitting Words In a state of emergency, such as a bomb threat, “The use of cell phones … presents a greater risk for potentially detonating the device …” (NSSSS).

Quote Within a Quote : 

Quote Within a Quote Wilson challenges blending the two ideas when he says, “One should question the validity of combining policy and ideology and challenge Martin Luther’s declaration that ‘Those who believe that they can be sure of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned’”(92).

What is Wrong Here? : 

What is Wrong Here? In addition, “Cell phones have been used by students in a number of cases nationwide for calling in bomb threats to schools.” (Taillon pg. 23).

Slide 27: 

Taillon explains that, “Cell phones have been used by students in a number of cases nationwide for calling in bomb threats to schools (Taillon 23).

Slide 28: 

Cell phones can be used to maintain a safe school environment. “Cell phones have been used by students in a number of cases nationwide for calling in bomb threats to schools” (Taillon 23).

Don’t Call Attention to the “QUOTE” or PAGE # : 

Don’t Call Attention to the “QUOTE” or PAGE # Taillon is in favor of cell phones in school in this quote: “In terms of school safety, cell phone have been used by students in a number of cases nationwide for calling in bomb threats to schools.” On page 12, the Associated Press claims, “Students have refused to give up their cell phones, saying the devices have become too vital to their daily existence…”

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