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Formal Grammar Rules


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Introductory clauses, phrases and words :

Varied Sentence Construction Review Introductory clauses, phrases and words

Introductory clauses :

Dependent clauses that provide background information or "set the stage" for the main part of the sentence, the independent clause. For example : If they want to win , athletes must exercise every day. (introductory dependent clause, main clause) Because he kept barking insistently , we threw the ball for Smokey. (introductory dependent clause, main clause) Introductory clauses start with adverbs like after , although, as, because, before, if, since, though, until, when, etc. Introductory clauses

Introductory Phrases :

Introductory phrases also set the stage for the main action of the sentence, but they are not complete clauses. Phrases don't have both a subject and a verb that are separate from the subject and verb in the main clause of the sentence. To stay in shape for competition , athletes must exercise every day. (introductory infinitive phrase, main clause) Barking insisten tly, Smokey got us to throw his ball for him. (introductory participial phrase, main clause) A popular and well respected mayor, Bailey was the clear favorite in the campaign for governor. (introductory appositive phrase, main clause) The wind blowing violently, the townspeople began to seek shelter. (introductory absolute phrase, main clause) After the adjustment for inflation , real wages have decreased while corporate profits have grown. (introductory prepositional phrases, main clause) Introductory Phrases

Introductory words:

Introductory words like however, still, furthermore, and meanwhile create continuity from one sentence to the next . The coaches reviewed the game strategy. Meanwhile , the athletes trained on the Nautilus equipment. Most of the evidence seemed convincing. Still , the credibility of some witnesses was in question. Introductory words

Transitions continued…:

Placement of transitions 1. At the beginning of a sentence, with a comma: The boat sank. However, the crew survived. 2 . Between sentences, with a semicolon and comma: The boat sank ; however, the crew survived. 3 . Within the sentences, with two commas: The boat sank. The crew , however, survived. Transitions continued…

Placement of transitions:

Rather than placing the transition at the beginning of the second sentence, you may place it in the middle of the second sentence after the subject with two commas. He, in fact, plays three sports at school. She, however, loves to go swimming in the ocean. Placement of transitions

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