plant-reproduction

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Plant Reproduction:

Plant Reproduction Click to Enter

INSTRUCTIONS:

INSTRUCTIONS Ensure that you complete all activities and worksheets when instructed to do so. The pad icon will indicate when you should fill in your worksheet. Work your way through the presentation by clicking on the background to move to the next page or to activate an animation. The mouse icon will indicate that a click will activate an animation or require buttons to be pressed in the quizzes. You can navigate around the presentation by using the arrow links that appear when you place your cursor on the lower left hand part of the screen. Some slides have embedded movies which will start when you click on the image. The video camera symbol tells you when a movie is available. There is sound so you may want to wear headphones if people are working near you. You can return to the home page by clicking on the click biology icon. At the end of the module there is a test that will provide a results page which you will print off and hand in to your teacher. The speaker symbol means that there are some audio explanation available for the slide

Plant Reproduction Home Page:

Plant Reproduction Home Page Flower structure Pollination Fruit development Seed dispersal Germination Test 1 2 3 4 5 6

Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants:

Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Click image to view a video on plant reproduction :

Click image to view a video on plant reproduction Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://vimeo.com/1594037?pg=embed&sec=1594037

Use the diagram below to complete the labels on the flower structure worksheet:

Use the diagram below to complete the labels on the flower structure worksheet stigma style ovary ovule carpel anther filament stamen petal sepal receptacle peduncle Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Complete the functions table by clicking on the labels to discover their functions:

Complete the functions table by clicking on the labels to discover their functions stigma style ovary ovule carpel anther filament stamen petal sepal receptacle peduncle Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Flower Structure Quiz:

Flower Structure Quiz What is the name of the structure labelled X in the diagram? sepal stamen peduncle carpel X Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test Click the correct answer

Flower Structure Quiz:

Flower Structure Quiz Where is pollen made? stigma sepal anther ovary Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Flower Structure Quiz:

Flower Structure Quiz Where is the ovule found in a flower? petals style nectary ovary Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Flower Structure Quiz:

Flower Structure Quiz Which parts of the flower are labelled below: X = filament, Y = anther X Y X = stigma, Y = style X = anther, Y = filament X = style, Y = stigma Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Pollination:

Pollination The pollen grain contains the male sex cell (gamete) Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma:

Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma This is an example of cross-pollination as the pollen travels from one flower to a different flower. This is desirable in plants as it promotes variation. Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test Click to view the animation

Pollen can be carried between flowers by insects or by wind:

Pollen can be carried between flowers by insects or by wind Use the information in the next two slides to complete the table comparing the adaptations of wind and insect pollinated flowers. Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted to attract insects to them to enable transfer of pollen:

Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted to attract insects to them to enable transfer of pollen Sticky stigma to collect pollen Brightly coloured petals nectar and a scent present Pollen has barbs for hooking onto insect fur Anthers positioned to rub pollen onto insects Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Wind-pollinated flowers are different in structure because they do not have to attract insects to them but do need to be exposed to the wind.:

Wind-pollinated flowers are different in structure because they do not have to attract insects to them but do need to be exposed to the wind. Petals are small and green as there is no need to attract insects Stigma are feathery to catch pollen carried on wind Anthers are exposed to the wind so that pollen can easily be blown away Pollen grains are very small and light. They occur in very large numbers No scent or nectary Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Self-pollination occurs when pollen falls from the anther onto the stigma of the same flower:

Self-pollination occurs when pollen falls from the anther onto the stigma of the same flower Self-pollination is not desirable as it reduces variation Click to show animation of self-pollination Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Flowers will prevent self-pollination by either having stigma above stamen or…:

Flowers will prevent self-pollination by either having stigma above stamen or… Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

…by having stamen and stigma mature at different times.:

…by having stamen and stigma mature at different times. Complete the sections in your worksheet describing self-pollination and cross-pollination. Explain the mechanisms employed by plants to prevent self-pollination. Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Click on the icons below to view the summary videos on pollination :

Click on the icons below to view the summary videos on pollination Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test Pollination (9 minutes) Insect pollination (1 minute) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZ3J4UWwd2Q If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ge3EM8AERV0

Pollination Quiz:

Pollination Quiz Pollination is the transfer from….? the stigma to anther style to stamen anther to stigma ovule to filament Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test Click the correct answer

Pollination Quiz:

Pollination Quiz The two mechanisms for pollination are? Wind and water Insect and water Insect and wind Wind and birds Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Pollination Quiz:

Pollination Quiz Cross-pollination… Increases variation Decreases variation Is only performed by wind Is only performed by insects Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Pollination Quiz:

Pollination Quiz Flowers are adapted for wind-pollination by… Having feathery stigmas Having a nectary Having bright petals and a scent Having sticky stigmas Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Fertilisation and Fruit Development:

Fertilisation and Fruit Development Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Once pollination occurs a tube grows from the pollen grain down through the style to the ovule:

Once pollination occurs a tube grows from the pollen grain down through the style to the ovule Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test stigma style ovary ovule carpel Note: Petals not shown in order to simplify diagram Click to view the animation

Fertilisation occurs when the male gamete fuses with the ovule (the female gamete):

Fertilisation occurs when the male gamete fuses with the ovule (the female gamete) Complete the fertilisation section of the worksheet (you will need to refer to your text book) Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test Click to view the animation

Watch this short introductory video to review fertilisation (1 minute):

Watch this short introductory video to review fertilisation (1 minute) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVhH2GPlckE

Seed Dispersal:

Seed Dispersal Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Watch the video on seed dispersal (lasts just under 10 minutes):

Watch the video on seed dispersal (lasts just under 10 minutes) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbQ1jWl3AOM

PowerPoint Presentation:

After fertilisation the petals, stamen and sepals fall off. The ovule turns into a seed, the fertilised egg inside develops into an embryo plant. Testa: tough seed coat Micropyle: Hole made by pollen tube Embryo plant Cotyledon: Food store Plumule: Embryo shoot Radicle: Embryo root Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Water leaves the seed, it dehydrates and becomes dormant because metabolic reactions stop. The ovary develops to become a fruit.:

Water leaves the seed, it dehydrates and becomes dormant because metabolic reactions stop. The ovary develops to become a fruit. seed Fleshy wall of the ovary (yes, you are eating an adapted ovary when you crunch into an apple! Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Seeds need to be dispersed away from the parent plant in order to reduce competition for space, light, nutrients and water.:

Seeds need to be dispersed away from the parent plant in order to reduce competition for space, light, nutrients and water. Seeds can be dispersed by: Wind Water Mechanical Animals Fill in the worksheet on the reasons and mechanisms for seed dispersal

Seed dispersal quiz:

Seed dispersal quiz Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture mechanical wind animal water Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test Click the correct answer

Seed dispersal quiz:

Seed dispersal quiz Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture water animal wind mechanical Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test Click the correct answer

Seed dispersal quiz:

Seed dispersal quiz Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture wind mechanical animal water Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test Click the correct answer

Seed dispersal quiz:

Seed dispersal quiz Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture mechanical animal wind water Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test Click the correct answer

Germination:

Germination Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

The seed contains the embryo plant and cotyledons (starch stores):

Water enters the seed through the micropyle and activates enzymes. The water also softens the testa to allow it to split. Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test The seed contains the embryo plant and cotyledons (starch stores) Plumule (embryo shoot) Radicle (embryo root) Micropyle Testa Cotyledon Label the diagram of the seed

Enzymes are used in seed germination:

Enzymes are used in seed germination starch embryo plant amylase secreted maltose absorbed The enzymes break starch down into maltose and then glucose. The glucose is used in respiration to provide energy for growth Plumule Radicle This is the first part to grow out of the seed as it needs to absorb more water Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

Whilst germinating the plant uses food stores in the cotyledon to provide energy for growth:

Whilst germinating the plant uses food stores in the cotyledon to provide energy for growth Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test light soil germination Plant growth and development The seedling can now photosynthesise and make its own food

Changes in dry mass of the germinating seed::

Changes in dry mass of the germinating seed: Seed loses weight as it uses up starch stores in the cotyledons as the seedling cannot photosynthesise yet Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test Days Dry mass/g Dry mass is the mass of solid matter with all water removed Weight increases as the seedling can photosynthesise and plant grows Answer the question on the worksheet Click to listen to an explanation

Conditions required for germination Summarise the findings of the experiment shown below::

Conditions required for germination Summarise the findings of the experiment shown below: Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test 4 o C A moist moist moist moist dry Warm B Warm C Warm D Warm E Oxygen present Oxygen present Oxygen present Oxygen present No oxygen No light Pyrogallol (absorbs oxygen) Click to listen to an explanation

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