INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

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Slide 1: 

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES REPORT BY; LEAH B.DEL ROSARIO JOVELITA DEPALOG AURIL DUYAG

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES : 

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES People differ in physical dimension, strength, interests and skills. They differ in the rate and pattern of development. They differ in the keenness of the integration of their intellectual and physical functions. They differ in proficiency of certain tasks. Their differences may affect their success in their work or in society. Psychology use measurements to study individual differences a. Nominal measurement Numbers are use to identify different categories; b. Ordinal measurement Numbers designate rank or order among the things being measured; c. Interval measurement Numbers represent differences in magnitude;

STATISTIC IN PSYCHOLOGY : 

STATISTIC IN PSYCHOLOGY In connection with test of individual differences, the science of statistic is used to simplify complex data and to make comparison to different individuals in groups. Statistic determine a point of origin to make raw scores meaningful. Frequently distribution: a set of data which varies. Frequency refers to how many numbers there are of a certain size on how many numbers fall within a category. Unordered distribution: a set of measurement where in the number are arranged in column for convenience, but are not in any particular order. Ranked distribution: data that can be arranged in order from the highest to the lowest.

MEASURES OF CENRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY : 

MEASURES OF CENRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY To find the point of origin, various measures of central tendency, like the arithmetic mean, median and mode are used individual differences do not depend on the presence and absence of certain traits but rather on their being present in varying amounts in different persons. Most traits seem to be distributed symmetrically and; if plotted, would take the form of a bell-shaped curve. The “arithmetic mean” or average = is perhaps the best known measures of the central tendency a group. The median = is the middle scores of the group, the scores with separate the upper half of the cases from the lower half. The mode = is the scores earned by the most member of the group being studied. Measures of variability are the range, the standard deviation and the centile scores. A range is different from the highest and the lowest scores. Standard deviation represent a distance along the base line of a distribution curved.

Test = Psychologist use ability testing to study individual differences.In order to make predictions from tests, they must meet certain specificatre supposed ions for reliability, validity and standardization.Reliability =is weather or not the test scores are self consistent. It gives the same result or difference occasions.Validity =is how well the test come up with what they supposed to measure, and how well they predict according to an acceptable criterion.Kinds of testAptitude tests =attempt to predict the success of an individual in a kinds of performance not yet attained, as in judging how much an individual will profit from training before training is under taken.Achievement test =measure present attainment, or what the respondent has learned after the completion of training. : 

Test = Psychologist use ability testing to study individual differences.In order to make predictions from tests, they must meet certain specificatre supposed ions for reliability, validity and standardization.Reliability =is weather or not the test scores are self consistent. It gives the same result or difference occasions.Validity =is how well the test come up with what they supposed to measure, and how well they predict according to an acceptable criterion.Kinds of testAptitude tests =attempt to predict the success of an individual in a kinds of performance not yet attained, as in judging how much an individual will profit from training before training is under taken.Achievement test =measure present attainment, or what the respondent has learned after the completion of training.

Test of ability differ on weather they are:a. Individual or group test b. Emphasize verbal or non-verbal performance factorc. measure the speed of a person to solve problems.There are measures of ability to solve difficult problems irrespective of time required were in it is called as power tests.Intelligence tests Tests intended to measure intellectual ability are called intelligence tests. Intelligence tests are useful aptitude tests because they measure abilities important in school, in vocational under taking and other aspect of social adjustments. The first successful intelligence tests were developed by Albert Binet in France in 1905 with the help of Theodoro Simon. : 

Test of ability differ on weather they are:a. Individual or group test b. Emphasize verbal or non-verbal performance factorc. measure the speed of a person to solve problems.There are measures of ability to solve difficult problems irrespective of time required were in it is called as power tests.Intelligence tests Tests intended to measure intellectual ability are called intelligence tests. Intelligence tests are useful aptitude tests because they measure abilities important in school, in vocational under taking and other aspect of social adjustments. The first successful intelligence tests were developed by Albert Binet in France in 1905 with the help of Theodoro Simon.

Slide 7: 

Alfred Binet= the first successful intelligence tests were developed in france in 1905 with the help of Theodore simon…. David Wechsler=the most widely used of adult intelligence Louis Terman =Who was responsible for the Stanford Binet Scale introduced quotient (IQ)as an index of mental development. 140 and above- Genius 130-139-Very superior 120-129-superior 110-119-bright normal 90-109-average normal 80-89-Dull normal 70-79- Bordeline 50-69-Moron-EMR 20-49-Imbecile 0-19-Idiot

Slide 8: 

Charles Spearman(1927)=proposed that intelligence is a single factor that enables problem solving and doing well n all areas of cognition.. Thurstone(1938)=proposed that there are seven distinct primary abilities such as verbal memory numerical abilities and so on.. Raymond CattelL(1963) =Described intelligence a crystallized intelligence and fluid. MENTAL RETARDATION Is a deficiency present from birth, with no obvious brain damage. IDIOTS (Profoundly Mentally Retarded)- idiots are the lowet in intelligence,having mental ages of less than 3 years. they incapable degree .They requir close super vision and care in simple habits such as eating, dressing,and cleaning one’s self. IMBECILES (TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED)-imbeciles are higher in intelligence than idiots and their mental ages aere from 3-8 years. They seldom to acquire much of a speaking vocabulary,imbeciles cannot learn how to read ,spell, or do arithmetic. MORONS (Educable Mentally Retarded) =Morons are the highest of the feebleminded.They have IQ’s of 50 to 70 and as adults .Their mental ages range from 8-11/12 years .

Slide 9: 

Other types of mental retardation *There are physical defects. Disease w/c cause feebleminded. Microcephalic=is a mentally defective person who has an abnormally small pointed skull and brain. Macrocephalic= has a congenitally large skull and brain with associated mental deficiency.. Critinism=is a disability due to insufficient secretion of the tyroid gland .It is deficiency which produced intellectual and physical defects such as stunded growth,short,and loss hair.Other characteristics,like their lips,flat nose,protruding abdomen and large tongue are observable .Most cretins are idiots. Mongolism=also known as Downsyndrome,is due to a disturbance in the endocrine glands .The eyes are narrow and slanting ,with fissured tongue ,short fingers and flat nose ,they are idiots or imbecile. Hydrocephalic=is a defect that produces a very large skull because of an excessive amount of cerebro-spinal fluid between the skull and the undersized brain within it…

Slide 10: 

Leo Kanner= first described autistic disorder a s early as 1943, Kanner listed a unique constellation of behavior which he observed in 11 children he diagnosed.he observe the followingn characteristics: 1,Normal physical appearance 2.Delay in speech development 3. Immediate or delayed echolalia 4,Repetitive and stereotype play activities 5.Insistence on sameness 6. Lack of imagination 7.Good rote memory of a)Development rates b)Responses to sensory stimuli,over or under activity c) speech,language and cognitive capacities d)Capacities to relate to people ,events and objects

Slide 11: 

THE STUDY of characreristics of autistics children and the clinical features was conducted by ammerman .Last and Hersen (1993) .thier findings tended to agree with kanner description ,made in 1943 ,whereby the following were observed : Deficiency in social behavior-inabillity to establis eye contact ,prfers to be alone ,indifference to activity and avoidance of affection. Deficiency in speech and languages –echolalia,pronomial reversal and dysprosody . Self-stimulating behavior= ex.body rocking ,head rolling spinning or clapping. Self injurious behavior= head banging ,self biting of hands and wrist. Manifestation of exceptusl skills in memorization,mechanical and musical abilities THE STUDY of characreristics of autistics children and the clinical features was conducted by ammerman .Last and Hersen (1993) .thier findings tended to agree with kanner description ,made in 1943 ,whereby the following were observed : Deficiency in social behavior-inabillity to establis eye contact ,prfers to be alone ,indifference to activity and avoidance of affection. Deficiency in speech and languages –echolalia,pronomial reversal and dysprosody . Self-stimulating behavior= ex.body rocking ,head rolling spinning or clapping. Self injurious behavior= head banging ,self biting of hands and wrist. Manifestation of exceptusl skills in memorization,mechanical and musical abilities

Slide 12: 

THERAPY FOR AUTISTICS CHILDREN 1.The recent research on autism focuses on increasing language in children with autism..The program is referred to as Pivontal Response Training Motivation can be enhanced by; a) alllowing the child to participate in choosing activities in the teaching situation.. b) Using direct response –reinforcer relationship. c)Providing rewads immediately 2. Use of aversive conditioning,which means the use of stimuli that produce pain . In the this method the autistic hatrsh consequences are given, elecrtic shock,hosing with cold water or stream of water vapor sprayed into the child face are used .. 3.Use os self management to produce and maintain changes in their own behavior. 4. Use of psychoactive drugs or pharmaco-therapy.Unfortunately no single specific drug has been found that will really cure autism…

Slide 13: 

HOWARD GARDNER(1983-1990) categorized intelligence into seven kinds , which Are relatively independent of each other.these are; MUSICAL=skills involving music Bodily kinesthetic=skills in using body movement ;exemplified by dancer s,athltes,actor and surgeons. Logical mathematical= skills in problem solving and abstract thinking.. Linguistic=skills in the production and use of the languages.. Spatial=skills involving spatial configurations, exemplified by artist and architects. Interpersonal=skills in interacting with others Intrapersonal= awareness of internal aspect oneself.

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