COASTAL BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA

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COASTAL BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA :

COASTAL BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA Presented By Helly M. Joshi 14

Biodiversity :

Bio diversity What does “Bio” mean? Bio = Life

Biodiversity:

Bio diversity What does “Diversity” mean? D i v e r s i t y = V a r i e t y

Slide 4:

Diversity of genes Clownfish , Flatfish , and Sardines are all fishes—but they're not the same because their genes are different . Clownfish Flatfish Sardines

Slide 5:

Fish Frog Crocodile 2. Species Diversity For Example, Fish, Amphibians , and Crododiles are all different species

Slide 6:

P ond River 3 . Ecosystem Diversity Marine, Freshwater and Pond are all ecosystems . But each one is different with its own set of species living in it. Coral reefs

Biodiversity Hotspots :

Biodiversity Hotspots A biodiversity hotspot is an area with a relatively high biodiversity and that areas are most important for preserving species. The idea of hotspots is generally credited to the ecologist Norman Myers (1988). Hotspot areas occupy about 8% of world geographical area but hold 46% total world species. There are about 34 terrestrial and 11 marine hotspots of biodiversity.

The 34 Terrestrial Hotspots:

The 34 Terrestrial Hotspots Biodiversity Hotspots

The 34 Terrestrial Hotspots:

The 34 Terrestrial Hotspots Atlantic Forest California Floristic Province Cape Floristic Province Caribbean Islands Caucasus Brazilian Cerrado Central Chile Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa East Melanesian Islands Eastern African Afromantane Guinean Forests of West Africa Himalayas Horn of Africa Indo-Burma Irano-Anatolia Japan Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mediterranean Basin Mesoamerica Mountains of Central Asia Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China New Caledonia New Zealand Philippines Polynesia-Micronesia Southwest Australia Succulent Karoo Sundaland Tropical Andes Tumb è s-Chocò-Magdalena Wallacea Western Ghats and Sri Lanka

The 11 Marine Hotspots:

The 11 Marine Hotspots http://www.starfish.ch/reef/hotspots.html = not very rich in marine species = rich = very rich = regions with a lot of endemic species(= hotspots)

The 34 Marine Hotspots:

The 34 Marine Hotspots Philippines Sundaland Islands Wallacea Gulf of Guinea Southern Mascarene Islands Eastern South Africa North Indian Ocean Southern Japan, Taiwan and Southern China Cape Verde Islands Western Caribbean Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

Slide 12:

International Year of Biodiversity 2010

International Year of Biodiversity:

International Year of Biodiversity The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) is a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its value for life on Earth. The International Year of Biodiversity is meant to raise awareness of biodiversity through activities and events in many countries.

Ocean:

Ocean Saltwater and freshwater zones cover almost three-fourths of the earth’s surface. Oceans contain 97% of earth’s water Despite the critical role that oceans play in our lives, they are still the least protected areas of our planet. Currently, less than 1% of seas and oceans are protected. The oceans regulate the Earth’s temperature, nutrients cycle, have taken up nearly half of anthropogenic CO 2 , and provide nearly half the oxygen in the atmosphere. More than 1 billion people worldwide depend on the marine environment for goods and services such as coastal protection, food, income and livelihoods

Indian Ocean:

Indian Ocean India has a long coastal line of over 7500 km.

Slide 16:

The dissimilarities between the west and east coasts are remarkable The west cost is generally exposed with heavy Wave and rocky shores whereas the east coast is generally exposed with beaches, lagoons , deltas and marshes Deltas lagoon Rocky shores

COASTAL BIRDS DIVERSITY:

COASTAL BIRDS DIVERSITY

Slide 18:

M arine and coastal bird species such as the Spot-billed Pelican and the Lesser Adjutant are found in India along coasts includes the Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Mannar, Pulicat , Coringa and Chilka Lake etc The Sundarbans is an important wintering area for gulls and terns. Spot-billed Pelican Lesser Adjutant gulls terns

COASTAL TURTLES DIVERSITY:

COASTAL TURTLES DIVERSITY Five of the seven species of sea turtles found world wide are reported to occur in Indian coastal waters These are the Olive ridley , Hawksbill ,Leatherback and Loggerhead. Except for the Loggerhead, the remaining three species nest along the Indian coastline. A significant proportion of World's Olive ridley population migrate every winter to the Indian coastal waters for nest on beaches in Orissa, as well as along other parts of Indian coast. leatherback loggerhead Olive ridley Hawksbill

COASTAL MAMMALS DIVERSITY:

COASTAL MAMMALS DIVERSITY About 25 species of marine mammals known in Indian water . such as baleen whales, sperm whales , humpback dolphin and spotted dolphin Humpback Dolphin spotted dolphin sperm whales baleen whales

COASTAL CROCODILE DIVERSITY:

COASTAL CROCODILE DIVERSITY The saltwater crocodile has a vast geographical range from Cochin on the west coast to the Sunderbans in West Bengal and also in the Andaman Islands. In Andaman and Nicobar Islands this species is seriously endangered, from hunting and from loss of habitat particularly breeding sites. crocodile

COASTAL DUGONG DIVERSITY:

COASTAL DUGONG DIVERSITY Dugong(sea cow) present along some part of indian ocean coastline. Large population present in Gulf of Mannar and in Palk Bay Dugong are also present in gulf of Kutch and in Andaman. Dugong (sea cow)

COASTAL SEAGRASS DIVERSITY:

COASTAL SEAGRASS DIVERSITY There are some S eagrass in the Laccadives and they are also highly present around the Andaman and Nicobar. S eagrass beds are uncommon in coast of western India because of the degree of exposure and turbidity of these waters. S eagrass

COASTAL CORAL DIVERSITY:

COASTAL CORAL DIVERSITY Corals are actually animals with plants living inside them. A coral structure is actually composed of thousands of tiny animals growing together as a colony which make a coral. And coral together make a reef. coral reef

COASTAL CORAL DIVERSITY:

COASTAL CORAL DIVERSITY coral reef are well adapted in warm, shallow and well aerated places and these conditions are found mostly in tropical and subtropical sea regions. . They are well suited in a temperature range of 22 °C to 26 °C. If this range falls below 17 °C or rises above 28 °C then formation of reef is disturbed.

COASTAL CORAL DIVERSITY:

COASTAL CORAL DIVERSITY In India coral reef ecosystem is distributed along with both west and east coasts. coral reef is significantly more in west coast than in the east coast. The reasons for less formation of coral reef in east coast are: 1. The sea around the east coast is very shallow, 2. The eastern coastal plains are wider and drier than western coastal. 3. Human activities like anthropogenic effects are more in east coast which affect the formation of coral reefs in east coast.

TYPES OF CORAL REEFS FOUND IN INDIA: :

TYPES OF CORAL REEFS FOUND IN INDIA: There are mainly four types of coral reefs found in India. 1.PLATFORM REEFS: These are almost flat reefs. They are on the shallower part of the ocean. These types of reefs are mainly found in Gulf of Kachchh of India. 2 . FRINGING REEFS : The most significant growth of corals occur at the edges of these reefs. Fringing reefs are found in Gulf of Manner, Palk bay and in Andaman & Nicobar islands of India. PLATFORM REEFS FRINGING REEFS

TYPES OF CORAL REEFS FOUND IN INDIA: :

3. BARRIER REEFS : These reefs are quite similar with fringing reefs but this are disconnected from the mainland. Barrier reefs are mainly found in Andaman & Nicobar islands of India. 4. ATOLLS : These are oceanic and not associated with land. Atolls in India are mainly found in Lakshadweep islands. BARRIER REEFS ATOLLS TYPES OF CORAL REEFS FOUND IN INDIA:

INDIAN REEF REGION The Gulf of Kachchh reefs:

INDIAN REEF REGION The Gulf of Kachchh reefs In Gulf of Kachchh the geographical isolation and the extreme environmental variations are the reasons of quite low coral diversity and only 37 corals species found here.

The Lakshadweep reefs:

The Lakshadweep reefs Atolls reefs are found only in lakshadweep. Biodiversity is relatively quite high in the Lakshadweep. 104 corals species found here. ATOLLS

GULF OF MANNAR:

GULF OF MANNAR The Gulf of Mannar reef formations are of fringing type. 91 corals species found here. FRINGING REEFS

ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS:

ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS Two sections of the Andaman reefs have been declared as Marine National Parks. The Nicobar Island is also declared as a Biosphere Reserve. Andaman and Nicobar has highest coral reefs in Indian coast line. And 133 corals species found here.

COASTAL MANGROVES DIVERSITY:

COASTAL MANGROVES DIVERSITY Environmental factors which control the mangrove ecosystem are: temperature, salinity, wave action and dissolved oxygen. The absence of any of these factors has a serious effect on the growth of the mangroves.

COASTAL MANGROVES DIVERSITY:

COASTAL MANGROVES DIVERSITY Sundarban mangroves occupy very large area followed by Andaman-Nicobar Islands and Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat. Rest of the mangrove ecosystems are comparatively smaller.

COASTAL MANGROVES DIVERSITY:

COASTAL MANGROVES DIVERSITY Why should we protect Mangroves? They are buffers between the land and the sea. They protect the land from erosion. Mangrove act as a shelter against cyclones. They are breeding and nursery grounds for a variety of marine animals . They are a good source of timbers , firewood, fodder , honey, wax, tannin and dye . Mangroves are the main source of income for shoreline communities .

Successful Restoration of Mangrove in the Southeast Coast of India:

"THE MANGREEN PROJECT" Successful Restoration of Mangrove in the Southeast Coast of India CASE STUDY

Slide 37:

THE MANGREEN PROJECT

Slide 38:

THE MANGREEN PROJECT

THE MANGREEN PROJECT :

Palk Bay region in southeast coast of India is known for its mangroves, sea grass and fishery product. This bay separates India and Shrilanka . Their aimed is to protect mangrove. THE MANGREEN PROJECT

THE MANGREEN PROJECT :

THE MANGREEN PROJECT First phase include the site selection, species identification and adjusting land elevations in the degraded areas . Taking permission from village management, the trained villagers has been involved in fencing, seed collection, nursery management. Several environmental awareness programmes like street plays, field trips, field research training programmes have been conducted to create awareness among youths in the coastal areas. Educational Field Trip to Mangrove Forest

Slide 41:

Villagers Fencing Mangroves

Slide 42:

Villagers Planting Mangrove Seedlings

Slide 43:

2006

Slide 44:

2007

Slide 45:

2008

Slide 46:

2009

THE MANGREEN PROJECT :

THE MANGREEN PROJECT The successful mangrove restoration in Man-green Project are now platform for local NGOs and University Research students who learn and implement the similar activities in other coastal areas. The villagers team are continuously visiting other coastal areas to provide consultancy on mangrove restoration techniques.

Reference:

Reference BIODIVERSITY ,a biological numbers and difference by Kevin J. Gaston http://www.cbd.int/marine/ http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/policy_briefs_the_economic_value_of_marine_and_coastal.pdf ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/biodiversity/marine_en.pdf http://cop10.biodiv.be/cop10-10themes/marine-biodiversity http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/cp/coa_cou_356.pdf http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/1546/1/IJMS%2034(1)%2088-97.pdf

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THANK YOU

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