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Premium member Presentation Transcript Leadership, Supervision, and Management Considerations in Self-Help Centers: Leadership, Supervision, and Management Considerations in Self-Help Centers Kenneth J, Gill, Ph.D., CPRP Carlos Pratt, Ph.D., CPRPUnderstanding Your Roles: Understanding Your Roles What is your job title? Regional coordinator Self-Help Center facilitator Other What tasks must you accomplish? Do you see yourself as part of a larger organization? Do you help run an organization?Why study leadership, management, supervision & organizational factors?: Why study leadership, management, supervision & organizational factors? Few managers & supervisors, even leaders are “born”, most are “made” This skill and knowledge is unique and is “learnable” Even experienced managers/supervisors find they can learn more about it At least I have found that to be the case: almost 30 years of managing/supervising (the last 19 anyway), there is much more I can learnMore on why study management, supervision & organizational factors?: More on why study management, supervision & organizational factors? Many persons in human services who move into these roles are not very versed in these areas Most are skilled helpers: caring, fairly good interpersonal skills Necessary, but not sufficient to be a manager or supervisorWhy Indeed?: Why Indeed? You need power to get things done, so you have to understand it Your primary role is to help your staff/volunteers to get their job done, not to help them as persons, Particularly challenging and tricky in your organizational context.Defining Some Concepts: Defining Some Concepts Management Supervision Leadership Organization Power Hierarchy Power Bureaucracy Are any of these dirty words?Your context: Your context Do these terms apply to the self-help centers? Are they solely corporate or large organization issues? What is their specific meaning in this context?Management: Management Also known as administration Ensures than an organization runs Keeps things running Ensures that the “transactions”, human and otherwise happen smoothly Not the same as supervision Resembles leadership only in its transactional senseSupervision: Supervision Literally means “over-sight” Oversight of both functions and performance of persons Includes evaluation of the performance of othersLeadership: Leadership The one who gets us there or leads us there Distinct from administrator, manager, supervisor (although overlaps) with others Many styles: Authoritarian (military model) Transactional democratic Laissez-Faire Participatory Charismatic Transformational modelOrganization: Organization Two or more individuals who divide their labor to achieve desired goals The primordial act of any organization is delegation Delegation- Sharing of work with accountabilityOrganization: Organization Formal roles Formal lines of accountability Informal networks for getting things done What about your organization? Do people serve in more than one role? How does this complicate the organization and its functions?Hierarchy: Hierarchy A type of structure to organizations To many, it has a negative connotation Layered structure Each layer is accountable to the higher layer But, the next highest layer is accountable to the next layer for the actions of the next lowest layers.Bureaucracy : Bureaucracy Another structural feature of organizations Also has a negative connotation Implies governance of an organization “by bureaus”, by desks That is not by personal charisma, or personal ownership or profit By faithfulness to the role or functionTeam: Team A type of organization within an organization Two or more members who share responsibilities Team members two generic roles: Generalist (shared responsibilities) Specialist (distinct, unique responsibility to team)Power: Power A taboo topic The last dirty word Negative force? Neutral force “The ability to get things done.” Including the ability to stop things. Command resources to do things Leaders, managers, supervisors….all need itMore on power: More on power “Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely”- -Lord Acton “Powerlessness corrupts, absolute powerlessness corrupts absolutely” –Rosabeth Moss Kantor Not about giving orders Not about throwing your weight around It is about: Accountability Sharing power (Kantor, “Power failure in management circuits” Formal and “informal” componentsNon-profit world: Organizational Complexities: Non-profit world: Organizational Complexities Many joint ventures and partnerships Complexity of customer relationships and stakeholders (e.g.) Consumers Board of Directors CSP-NJ Local Sponsor NJ DMHS and any other funder Result: authority is diffused, responsibility Can be diffused, accountability may be weak or unclear You have to work with people you do not control, nor do they control youChallenge to Managers, Supervisors, and Leaders: Challenge to Managers, Supervisors, and Leaders You have responsibility, but little power Lines of authority and accountability may be unclear or not developed Few management “tools” at hand Tempts many to be: “Overly democratic” Excessively laissez-faire Heavy-handed, authoritarianWhat motivates staff? (MacGregor): What motivates staff? (MacGregor) Theory X People are inherently lazy, wish to avoid work, are interested in workplace hygiene and concrete rewards only, need to be supervised Theory Y People enjoy work, seek challenges and opportunities, are self-driven, seek other types of rewardsWhich is the motivator in the consumer movement?: Which is the motivator in the consumer movement? Which more accurately describes those who work in the consumer movement: Theory X or Theory Y? Is it different for paid staff and volunteers? Are their multiple determinants of motivation?Motivating Staff: Motivating Staff If your people are theory X? What will motivate them? If they are theory Y? What will motivate them? If there is a mix? What will motivate them?“In Praise of Hierarchy” (Jacques, 1990): “In Praise of Hierarchy” (Jacques, 1990) What are hierarchies? Related to “chain of command” concept What are famous examples of hierarchies? How do they vary from teams? Do they have any advantages over teams in terms of accountability? Can even teams function without leaders?Special Strengths and Burdens of Hierarchy: Special Strengths and Burdens of Hierarchy Accountability is clear, who to reward and punish is clear. Time span and decision-making concept Front-line (immediate horizon)- today, this week, this month Front-line supervisors – immediate future, but a bit further out The top: years out, 5-20 years out, long-term role and existenceSome failures of hierarchy: Some failures of hierarchy State Psychiatric Hospitals More concerned about external accreditation and monitoring, then internal accountability Roman Catholic Church Sex abuse scandals Neglect and/or cover-up, transfers by bishops of suspect priests U.S. Military Prisoner abuse, failure of chain of command? Are NCO’s and officers being held accountable? At least one general said she did not know she could look into itSystems Theory: Systems Theory We think in terms of systems Organizations are systems as is our body, which like organizations is actually a number of systems interfacing To maintain energy and avoid entropy, systems need input Within the organism, a number of processes are conducted, all require energy (negative entropy) Entropy is a constant threat, the loss of energy and the deterioration of processes into chaos as a result Outputs emerge from the system All systems are open or closed to some extent This is neither positive or negativeSystems Theory: Systems Theory Open systems Interaction with environment Closed systems Protection from environmental threats Any organism (human body), must have some of both Apply this model to organizations – they need constant inputs, but also must protect themselves from threatsExamples of Other Systems: Examples of Other Systems Universities, schools, the mental health system, etc. What are its? Inputs Processes Outputs Closed/Open features Entropy threats Negative entropyWhat about your system?: What about your system? What are its: Inputs Processes Outputs Closed/Open features Entropy threat Negative entropy You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.