Architecture in Lithuania

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THE ARCHITECTURE IN LITHUANIA FROM PAST TO FUTUREARCHITEKTURA LIETUVOJE:PRAEITIS-DABARTIS-ATEITIS : 

THE ARCHITECTURE IN LITHUANIA FROM PAST TO FUTUREARCHITEKTURA LIETUVOJE:PRAEITIS-DABARTIS-ATEITIS

PAST FROM THE BEGINNING OF XX-th CENTURY TO 1989PRAEITIS XXa. pradžia -1989 : 

PAST FROM THE BEGINNING OF XX-th CENTURY TO 1989PRAEITIS XXa. pradžia -1989

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ARCHITECTURE IN LITHUANIA (in general description ) Every epoch of cultural development has its own peculiar style of architecture, which expresses the conception of the world and the way of life of the period. However, edifices of one and the same epoch are very different, same as are people’s class and social possibilities. The efforts of the people creating the new Lithuanian architecture are concentrated towards mass construction, ensuring the fast expansion of the economic and cultural demands of the Lithuanian socialist nation. One of the most prominent features of the contemporary architecture is the trend towards creating groups of buildings and architectural ensembles instead of constructing separate monument-style edifices.   There were a lot of architects working in Lithuania in XX century, but they did not have one clear specialization. These architects were making projects of the buildings which had a different purpose. The main reason of that was the diversity of countries they were studying in, starting from the period just before the I World War and lasting for all the years of being the part of the former USSR. Our architects took different styles of architecture from the countries they were studying in and brought them back to Lithuania after the independence of our state was declared. That was the ravage of the period of eclecticism. One of the most famous architects of the XX century in our country was Vladimiras Dubeneckis. He was not only the architect, but also a good painter and stenographer who were studying in St. Petersburg. This man lived and worked in the city of Kaunas in Lithuania. Vytautas Lansbergis – Žemkalnis could be mentioned as the other well-known architect of the XX century. He was studying in Rome, Riga and as Vladimiras Dubeneckis, he worked in Kaunas. He had his private practice of making projects as well. Also, he was a professor of Vilnius University and the promoter of functionalism in Lithuania. Moreover, Mykolas Songaila shoud be remembered as the Lithuanian architect of the XX century. He was studying in St. Petersburg and taught his students in the different universities of this city. Also, he was improving his working skills in Italy. ARCHITEKTURA LIETUVOJE (bendras apibudinimas) Kiekviena kulturos raidos epocha turi jai budinga architekturos stiliu, išreiškianti to meto pasaulejauta, pasauležiura, gyvenimo buda. Ir vis delto tos pacios epochos statiniai labai ivairus, nes nevienodos yra žmoniu klasines ir socialines galimybes. Iš XX a. mes turime didingu ir gražiu statiniu. Šio laikotarpio Lietuvos architekturai tiktu ieškojimu periodo pavadinimas. XX a. Lietuvos, kaip ir kitu šaliu, architektura susiskaide i daugeli ivairiu krypciu ir daugiau niekada nesusiliejo i vientisa stiliu. Daugumos architektu darbuose reiškesi paprastumas, saikingumas ir rimtumas. Lietuviu architekturos genetinis fondas ir jos istorine atmintis nenutrukstamais ryšiais sieja praeiti su dabartimi ir yra patikima kiekvieno naujo lietuviu architektu kurybos etapo originalumo prielaida. Vienas iš svarbiausiu naujosios architekturos bruožu yra ne individualiu pastatu-paminklu, o statiniu grupiu, ansambliu, kompleksu kurimas. XX a. Lietuvoje dirbo nemažai architektu, nors jie nebuvo ryškios specializacijos: daugeliui pasitaike proga išbandyti projektuojant ivairios paskirties pastatus. Griže i nepriklausoma Lietuva iš Rusijos ar kitu kraštu ir mokslus išeje prieš I pasaul. kara, buvo išmoke naudotis visu stiliu išraiškos priemonemis. Tai buvo eklektikos laikotarpio padarinys. Vienas žymiausiu XX a. Lietuvos architektas – Vladimiras Dubeneckis. Jis buvo ne tik architektas, bet ir dailininkas scenografas. Studijavo Peterburge. Gyveno ir kure Kaune. Kitas žymus XX a. architektas – Vytautas Landsbergis – Žemkalnis. Funkciomnalizmo Lietuvoje pradininkas Studijavo Rygoje, Romoje, dirbo Kaune, veliau deste Vilniaus universitete, projektavo privaciai. Mykolas Songaila – XX a. Lietuvos architektas. Studijavo Peterburgo dailes akademijoje, tobulinosi Italijoje. Deste Peterburgo politechnikos institute ir Žemes ukio universitete.

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Chamber of Commerce in Vilnius1924 Prekybos ir pramones rumai, Vilnius 1924 Institute of Physical Education in Kaunas, 1934 Kuno kulturos institutas Kaune, 1934

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Church in Mazeikiai, 1935 Mažeikiu bažnycia, 1935 Church in Sanciai 1938 Šanciu bažnycia, 1938

Faculty of Medicine, Kaunas 1920Kauno medicinos fakultetas, 1920 : 

Faculty of Medicine, Kaunas 1920Kauno medicinos fakultetas, 1920 THE INTER-WAR LITHUANIA 1918-1940 After the I World War there was a purpose to make the building of our country more uniform, but there were a lot of problems as we did not have enough money and people who could work in this field. The contribution of our architects, especially of M. Songaila, V. Dubeneckis, K. Reisonas, was huge, because they tried to design a little number of various individual houses. It fostered the citizens to live in the nice, tidy and hygienic flats. Also, there were a lot of churches built in the various places of Lithuania. After the independence of Lithuania there was a need of new schools to be constructed, but the buildings were not grand because of the lack of money. Talking about the other public buildings, the look shoud be taken to the buildings of the various institutions, which were representing our country, especially to the institutions which were designated for the defence of our country. The main feature of these buildings was very strict architecture. The buildings of the railways in XX century were more nice-looking than the previous ones. At any rate, but in the inter-war Lithuania (all first - Kaunas) the modern Lithuanian architecture- both - functionalism and art nouveau developed quite rapidly. The sector of real city intellectuals formed in Kaunas. In a word, the inter-war Lithuania, we see the urban culture and manifestations of urban consciousness. TARPUKARIO LIETUVA 1918-1940 Po I pasaul. karo laisva Lietuva dejo daug pastangu, kad sutvarkytu krašto statyba. Pradžioje nebuvo nei lešu, nei statybininku, nei kitu priemoniu, reikalingu statyboms. Cia pasireiške daug Lietuvos architektu: M.Songaila, V.Dubaneckis, K. Reisonas ir kiti. Namai statomi ne po daug, o dažniausia buvo privatus, individualiai projektuoti - tai buvo palanki aplinkybe pasireikšti ivairumui. Tokia pažanga skatino miestieciu nora gyventi gražiuose, tvarkinguose ir higieniškuose butuose. Ivairiose vietose buvo pastatyta ir nauju bažnyciu. Nepriklausomai Lietuvai, kuri sparciai kele savo krašto švietima, buvo reikalinga daug nauju pastatu mokslo istaigoms, mokykloms. Deja lešu ribotumas neleido mokyklu architekturoje reikštis prabangai.Svarbia vieta viešuju pastatu tarpe užeme ivairus istaigu rumai. Jiems netruko reprezentaciniu užmoju.Pastatai krašto gynybai pasižymejo kapitališku, griežtu pastatymu. XX a. geležinkeliu pastatai buvo daug gražesni, tinkamiau suprojektuoti už senuosius. Kad ir kaip butu, bet tarpukario Lietuvoje (visu pirma – Kaune) gan sparciai pletojosi modernioji lietuviu architektura – tiek funkcionalizmas, tiek ir apskritai art nouveau. Kaune susiformuoja tikru miesto intelektualu sluoksnis. Žodžiu, tarpukario Lietuvoje mes regime miestu kulturos ir miestietiškos samones apraiškas.

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War museum in Kaunas1930 Karo muziejus, Kaunas 1930 Institute of chemical physics in Kaunas 1931 Fizikos ir chemijos institutas, Kaunas1931

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APARTMENT HOUSES Lithuania, which was connected to the Soviet Union after 1945, became a participant of a total reconstruction project more then for fifty years. Architecture and urban planning were like means, which facilitated to create a new society during that post-war period. Lithuania was divided into two parts –Vilnius, what absorbed all materials and intellectual resources and the devastated province. The generation of the younger architects in that period concentrated mostly on the designing of the blocks of flats. The style of plane roofs and facades which were formated geometrically dominated in the architecture of the Western Europe. Some architects, which had done a lot in that period, could be mentioned: V. Cekanauskas, E. Buciute, E. Chlomauskas, Z. Liandzbergis, etc. ”Khrushchev's” apartments were the lest and the cheapest buildings. A dozen rooms and square meters in size, a kitchenette, a little bathroom were in that flat. DAUGIABUCIAI Lietuva, kuri buvo prijungta prie Sovietu Sajungos po 1945-uju metu, tapo totalaus rekonstrukcijos projekto dalyve daugiau kaip 50-ciai metu. Šiuo pokario laikotarpiu architektura ir miestu planavimas buvo lyg priemones, padedancios kurti nauja visuomene. Lietuva buvo padalinta i dvi dalis – visus materialinius bei intelektualinius išteklius absorbuojanti Vilniu ir nusiaubta provincija. To meto jaunesnioji architektu karta gyvai reiškiasi ivairiu daugiabuciu rajonu užstatymo projektuose. Architekturoje vyrauja Vakaru Europos plokšciu stogu stilius, su geometrinio apipavidalinimo fasadais. Iš besireiškianciu architektu Lietuvoje pažymetini: V. Cekanauskas, E. Buciute, E. Chlomauskas, Z. Liandzbergis ir kt. „Chrušcioviniai“ daugiabuciai buvo mažiausi ir pigiausi pastatai. Butuose, kuriu kambariai buvo vos keliolikos kvadratiniu metru dydžio, buvo dar virtuvele, vonios kampas ir sanitarinis mazgas. Vilnius, 1960

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Vilnius 1970 Vilnius 1965 Vilnius 1982

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SOVIETINIO LAIKOTARPIO SKULPTUROS Urbanistines aplinkos idejini ir menini turini sustiprino Vilniuje, Kaune, Kryžkalnyje, Klaipedoje, Druskininkuose ir kitose Lietuvos vietose iškile monumentalus paminklai, skirti iamžinti istorines sovietiniu kariu (antras pasaulinis karas) kovas ir ju didvyrius. SCULPTURES OF SOVIET PERIOD The ideological and artistic contents of the urban environment has also been strengthened by monuments, erected in Vilnius, Kaunas, Kryžkalnis, Klaipeda, Druskininkai and other localities of Lithuania immortalizing soviet soldiers (second world war) historical battles and their heroes.

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Lenin, Kaunas 1975, sculptor R.Antinis M.Melnikaite, Druskininkai, 1952, sculptor R.Antinis

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GRUTO PARKAS - SOVIETINIU SKULPTURU MUZIEJUS Gruto parkas (neoficialiai vadinamas „Stalino pasaulis“)–Gruto kaime netoli apie 130 kilometru i pietvakarius nuo Druskininku Vilniaus, esantis parkas, kuriame irengta socialistinio realizmo dvasia sukurtu tarybinio laikotarpio veikeju skulpturu ekspozicija. Atidarytas 2001m. balanadžio 1 d. Steigejas–.Lietuvai 1990m. Atgavus nepriklausomybe, Viliumas Malinauskas cia buvo perkelta dauguma iki tol reikšmingose vietose stovejusiu skulpturu. Gruto parko ekspozicija atskleidžia sovietines ideologijos neigiama turini, poveiki vertybiu sistemai. Ekspozicija skirta tam, kad Lietuvos žmones, i šali atvykstantys sveciai, taip pat ir ateities kartos, turetu galimybe pamatyti apnuoginta sovietine ideologija, daugeli dešimtmeciu slegusia ir žeidusia musu tautos dvasia. Iki šiol ne vienas muziejus ar kita kulturos istaiga nebande kaupti ar tinkamai eksponuoti sovietiniu skulpturu. GRUTAS PARK - A SCULPTURE MUSEUM OF SOVIETPERA STATUES Grutas Park (unofficially known as Stalin's World ) is a sculpture garden of Soviet-era statues and an exposition of other Soviet ideological relics from the times of the Lithuanian SSR. Founded in 2001 by entrepreneur Viliumas Malinauskas, the park is located near Druskininkai, about 130 kilometers southwest of Vilnius, Lithuania. After Lithuania regained its independence in 1990, various Soviet statues were taken down and dumped in different places. The Grutas Park exposition discloses the negative content of the Soviet ideology and its impact on the value system. The aim of this exposition is to provide an opportunity for Lithuanian people, visitors coming to our country as well as future generations to see the naked Soviet ideology which suppressed and hurt the spirit of our nation for many decades.

Soviet sculpture exposition in Grutas ParkGruto skulpturu parkas : 

Soviet sculpture exposition in Grutas ParkGruto skulpturu parkas

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LIETUVOS KAIMO ARCHITEKTURA COUNTRYSIDE ARCHITECTURE IN LITHUANIA Daug rupesciu lietuviu tarybiniams architektams teike tuometinio Lietuvos kaimo architekturos optimizavimas. Buvo bandoma eiti dviem keliais: kurti visai naujas, prie miestietiško gyvenimo budo priartintas kolukiu gyvenvietes- daugiabuciai gyvenamieji namai, nera sodybu sklypu; pletoti senuosius kaimus ir miestelius. Juose gražiai derejo daugiabuciai ir sodybiniai gyvenamieji namai, želdiniu apsupti ukiniai pastatai, modernus visuomeniai centrai. The search for the optimal solution in the architecture of the contemporary Lithuanian countryside remains one of the major concerns for the Soviet Lithuanian architects. Two of types of experimenting were tested: create entirely new and maximum urbanized collective farm settlements. multi-apartment residential houses with no adjoining auxiliary farming plots. modernizing the existing ones: in those rural settlements multi-flat and farmstead type houses matched nicely together, auxiliary buildings are surrounded with greenery, administrative and service centres are resourcefully designed.

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Entirely new type of country side settlement Visiškai naujo tipo kaimo gyvenviete A farmstead Kaimo sodyba

PRESENT FROM 1990 TO PRESENT TIMEDABARTIS NUO 1990 IKI ŠIU DIENU : 

PRESENT FROM 1990 TO PRESENT TIMEDABARTIS NUO 1990 IKI ŠIU DIENU

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DABARTIS Šiandien daugeliui namai yra sleptuve. Prieglobstis nuo darbe patiriamos itampos. Dabartinio laikotarpio architekturai budingas individualizmas, ypac dekore. Didžiausias komplimentas kiekvienam iki dabar yra - išgirsti, kad jusu apdailos stilius yra gyvenamas, bet individualus- praktinis gyvenimo budas tapo stilingas. Architektura turi buti funkcionali, patogi, nebrangi eksploatuoti ir optimaliai tvari, darniai vienyti meninius estetinius ir racionalius ukinius žmoniu poreikius. Nepriklausomybes laikotarpio architektura pastebimai pakeite Lietuvos miestu „veida“: išaugo nauji kvartalai, pakito atskiri istoriniai pastatai. Intensyvios statybos ne tik paskatino teigiamas permainas, bet ir sukele rimtu problemu. Radikalus pertvarkymai negrižtamai sunaikina senuju pastatu savituma, (pvz., Vilniaus Užupio, Žveryno rajonai, Kauno Naujamiestis ir Žaliakalnis). PRESENT Today, home is as a hiding-place for many people. There they can shelter from the work-related stress. Architecture in the current period is characterized by individualism, especially in the decoration. The highest compliment in the Present for anyone is - to hear that your decoration style is practical, but individual - dwelling way of life has become stylish. Architecture has been functional, comfortable, and not expensive for exploitation. It has pander artistic and rational people needs. These days architecture changed Lithuanian cities “face”: grew up new blocks, changed history buildings. Constructions not only led to good changes but did strong problems. Transitions are destroying old buildings identity (ex. Vilniaus Uzupio, Zveryno squres, Kuno Naujamiestis and Zaliakalnis).

St.Mykolas church in Gargzdai, 1990 Šv. Mykolo bažnycia, Gargždai 1990 : 

St.Mykolas church in Gargzdai, 1990 Šv. Mykolo bažnycia, Gargždai 1990 Church in Kiaukliai, 2000 Kiaukliu bažnycia, 2000

Single-family houses complex, Klaipeda, 2005Individualiu namu kompleksas, Klaipeda 2005 : 

Single-family houses complex, Klaipeda, 2005Individualiu namu kompleksas, Klaipeda 2005 Residential building in Klaipeda district, 2005 Individualus namai Klaipedos rajone, 2005

Residential building in Palanga, 2006Individualus namas Palangoje, 2006 : 

Residential building in Palanga, 2006Individualus namas Palangoje, 2006 Individual (double) houses in Klaipeda district, 2006 Individualus (dvibuciai) namai Klaipedos rajone, 2006

Residential building in Viciunai, 2007 Residential buildings complex, 2008Gyvenamasis namas Viciunuose, 2007 Gyvenamuju namu kompleksas, 2008 : 

Residential building in Viciunai, 2007 Residential buildings complex, 2008Gyvenamasis namas Viciunuose, 2007 Gyvenamuju namu kompleksas, 2008

Multistory residential buildings, Vilnius 2007Daugiaaukšciai gyvenamieji namai, Vilnius 2007 : 

Multistory residential buildings, Vilnius 2007Daugiaaukšciai gyvenamieji namai, Vilnius 2007 “Sortima” universal sports arena in Vilnius, 2007 Vilniaus universali sporto arena “Sportima”, 2007

FUTURE FROM 2020 TO INDEFINITE FUTUREATEITIS NUO 2020 IKI……… : 

FUTURE FROM 2020 TO INDEFINITE FUTUREATEITIS NUO 2020 IKI………

FUTURE The goal of the modern architects was to buid the home in which you could always feel well. Our home is the heart of our life and commonness. We want to have the home, where we could feel free and create the atmosphere reflecting our taste and expectations. Nowadays we have institutions in Lithuania, where the young people who want to become the architects could study: we have the University of Vytautas the Great in Kaunas, also, there is Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in the capital of Lithuania. The studies are based on participating in the various types of seminars, making some investigations, organizing public jobs, looking at the trends of architecture in the world and comparing it with the situation in Lithuania. It helps to broaden the view of these young people, encourages them to realize the new modern ideas. It is important as these people will be capable to represent our country in the world. Šiuolaikiniu architektu tikslas kurti tokius namus, kur visuomet jautiesi gerai. Namai tai gyvenimo širdis ir kasdienybe. Norime namu, kur jauciames laisvai, kur galima kurti aplinka, atspindincia musu skoni ir pomegius. Lietuvoje architektai ruošiami ne tik Kaune, Kauno Vytauto didžio jo universitete, bet ir Vilniuje, Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitete. Šiose istaigose ruošiami šiuolaikiški, atviri pažangioms naujovems architektai. Dar budami studentais atlieka ivairius tiriamuosius darbus, rengia seminarus, organizuoja viešuosius darbus, parodas. Tai skatina jaunuosius architektus igyvendinti naujus sumanymus ir kuo ryškiau atspindeti Lietuva pasaulyje. ATEITIS

Architect’s ideasArchitektu idejos : 

Architect’s ideasArchitektu idejos

Children’s creativeVaiku kuryba : 

Children’s creativeVaiku kuryba

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONACIU UŽ DEMESI created by the third and fourth classes pupils and teacher Vaidute Mažeikiene : 

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONACIU UŽ DEMESI created by the third and fourth classes pupils and teacher Vaidute Mažeikiene

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