The Rise of Civilization: The Rise of Civilization Objectives: Objectives define city-state, empire, zigguart , polytheism describe the social hierarchy discuss the role of religion in early civilizations PowerPoint Presentation: . PowerPoint Presentation: Created basic political units called city-states Had strong armies Fought each other to gain more farmland PowerPoint Presentation: Sargon, an Akkadian ruler created the first permanent army and defeated all the city-states of Sumer When his army conquered northern Mesopotamia, he established the world’s first empire . Empire: land with different territories and peoples under a single rule Political: Political Sumer’s earliest governments were controlled by temple priests PowerPoint Presentation: Religion - Polytheism Worshiped many gods Ziggurat: Ziggurat Sumerian Social Order: Sumerian Social Order Social hierarchy: the division of society by rank or class Kings were at the top of the order because they claimed to be chosen to rule by the gods . Sumerian Society: Sumerian Society Kings and Priests Wealthy merchants, craftsmen Ordinary Sumerian people Slaves Men and Women in Sumer: Men and Women in Sumer Men generally held the political power and made laws. Women generally took care of the home and children. Education was generally reserved for men, but some upper class women were educated. Some women were priestesses in Sumerian temples. Enheduanna , a priestess who wrote hymns, is the first known female writer in history.