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Premium member Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation: BIOMETRICS & NATIONAL SECURITY POLICIESOVERVIEW: OVERVIEW The September 11, 2001 Attack (9/11 Attack) Biometric Industry and National Security Biometric (What is it? How does it work?) Supporters for the Use Biometric Technology Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology Discussion and ConclusionThe September 11, 2001 Attack (9/11 Attack): The September 11, 2001 Attack (9/11 Attack) Four US commercial airliner were high jacked by 19 terrorists. Two commercial airliner targeted the World Trade Center, NYC. One commercial airliner targeted the Pentagon in Washington D.C. One commercial airliner was forced down in Shanksville, PA. Over 3,000 American lives are lost.Biometric Industry and National Security: Biometric Industry and National Security CEO and Founder of Visionics, Joseph Attick testifying before Special Government Committee on September 20, 2001. (Bewley-Taylor, 2005) Few weeks after the 9/11 attack, House of Representative introduced 9 bills and the Senate introduced 8 bills calling on the implementation of Biometric technologies in one form or another. (Zuriek, 2004) One report estimate that the size of the Biometric market would exceed $4 Billion in the United States in 2007, which would reflect a growth of 80% in the market. (Zuriek, 2004)Biometric Industry and National Security: Biometric Industry and National Security Source: Summary Description of and Future Projection for the Biometric Industries. International Biometric Group. http://www.unc.edu/~smithdr/inls187/biofuture.htmBiometric Industry and National Security (Continued): Biometric Industry and National Security (Continued) The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (Also known as the 9/11 Commission) 2004 report and recommendations: - Department of Homeland Security (DHS) complete as “quickly as possible” a biometric system for entry and exit of the country, including U.S citizen. (O’Neil, 2005) - Department of Homeland Security (US-VISIT)WHAT IS BIOMETRIC?: WHAT IS BIOMETRIC?WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued): WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued) Biometric refers to establishing identity based on the physical and behavioral characteristic. - Physical Biometric Traits. - Behavioral Biometric Traits.WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued): WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued) Biometric device consist of a reader or scanning device, software that converts the gathered information into digital form and a database that stores all information that is collected and used for comparison against previous records. (Manivannan, 2011) When converting the biometric input, the software identifies specific points of data as match points. The match points are processed using an algorithm into a value that can be compared with biometric data in the database. (Manivannan, 2011)WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued): WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued) All biometrics authentication requires comparing a registered or enrolled biometric sample against a newly captured sample. (Ex. Logging on a system using fingerprints) Enrollment: is a process when a person is enrolling to be in the biometric database by giving a sample of biometric trait. During enrollment, a sample of biometric trait is captured, processed by a computer, and stored for later comparison.WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued): WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued) A Biometric system can be used in two types of modes: - Identification Mode - “One-to-Many Matching” - Verification Mode - “One-to-One Matching”WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued) Benefits of Biometric Vs. Traditional form of Authentications: WHAT IS BIOMETRIC? (Continued) Benefits of Biometric Vs. Traditional form of Authentications Unlike Traditional forms of Authentications (passwords, pin, badge, etc…), Biometric system is inherently reliable because: - Biometric traits cannot be lost or forgotten; - Biometric traits are difficult to copy, share, or distribute; and - they require the person to be present at the time and point of authentication. (Manivann, 2011)Support for the Use of Biometric Systems: Support for the Use of Biometric Systems Advocates and supporters for Biometric argued that by implementing Biometric systems it would be a benefit for society as a whole as well as ensure security. Proponents argue that biometric would prevent crime; help facilitate electronic transactions; combat vote-rigging; prevent welfare fraud; keeps sex offenders from obtaining jobs at schools and daycare centers; improve control over business payroll; and limit illegal immigration. (O’Neil, 2005)Support for the Use of Biometric Systems (Continued)_ “Identity Dominance” : Support for the Use of Biometric Systems (Continued)_ “Identity Dominance” A proponent for the implementation of Biometric systems and capabilities, Woodward advocated that the Department of Defense and the military should make use of the Biometric system in the War on Terror to ensure national security and protect US interest. (Woodward, 2005) John Woodward argued that the military should apply biometric technologies and create a database modeled after the FBI.Support for the Use of Biometric Systems (Continued)_ “Identity Dominance”: Support for the Use of Biometric Systems (Continued)_ “Identity Dominance” FBI’s Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) - Established in 1999. - Record of 48 million felons and serious misdemeanors on database. - Data sharing between Federal and local law enforcement officials. - On average, it takes 2 hours for information to be exchanged.Support for the Use of Biometric Systems (Continued)_ “Identity Dominance”: Support for the Use of Biometric Systems (Continued)_ “Identity Dominance” Woodward urges the DOD to create the Automated Biometric Identity System (ABIS). The Automated Biometric Identity System (ABIS) will be: - Modeled after the FBI’s IAFIS. - 10 Rolled Fingerprints - Data sharing between all levels of law enforcement agencies, Department of Homeland Security, Department of State, and all intelligence community. (Woodward, 2005)Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology : Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology There are critics who are skeptical and are against the use of biometric systems for security because for things such as: - Invasion of privacy. - Erosion of Civil Liberties. - The idea of a large, centralized database. - Doubts and the system being inefficient and prone to problems.Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology (Continued) : Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology (Continued) Case Studies: - Senior Federal Judge in Philadelphia ruled that fingerprints failed to meet scientific standards; tells jury to dismiss evidence. - In 1999 in the US, two crime scene prints were sent to 34 labs for analysis, with the result that eight of the labs were unable to match at least one of the two prints. (Wade, 2004)Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology (Continued) : Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology (Continued) In March 2003, iris and facial recognition scan was tested by four US federal agencies and overseen by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Although they expressed 80% accuracy, there were several problems with this results: - The environment was under controlled condition. - If lighting, angle, or background, are not virtually exact to the one in the database images, accuracy is reduced. - If the database is too large, over 3,000 enrollments, accuracy can drop as low as 50%. (Wade, 2004) - Currently, this biometric application is implemented at busy airports and football stadiums.Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology (Continued) : Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology (Continued) Comparable References: - In order for face recognition or biometric in its entirety to work, authorities needs a reference photo to begin with. - A person needs to be present for authentication (1st phase of enrollment) - Identities are visible, intents are not. - Unless the individual does not any terrorist ties, connections, or had not been identified by intelligence organization; they can still get a biometric scan or just simply show forged documents. (O’Neil, 2005)Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology (Continued) : Opponents Against the Use of Biometric Technology (Continued) US National Research Council’s Committee on Authentication Technologies and their Privacy Implication Report: - The implementation of a centralized system would require widespread access. (Ex: custom desk, airlines check-in, police vehicles, high-risk facilities, etc…) - Prone to break-in. - Identity theft and/or alter data by terrorist. (O'Neil, 2005)Discussion & Conclusion: Discussion & Conclusion Since the 9/11 attacks, security has become a paramount concern amongst many Americans. Although there are many problems that lies in the biometric systems and could lead to potential abuse, biometric industries still persist in promoting its roles in guaranteeing security at personal, institutional, and at national levels. (Zuriek, 2004)Discussion & Conclusion: Discussion & Conclusion Source : Acuity Market Intelligence : http://www.acuity-mi.com/FOB_Report.phpDiscussion & Conclusion: Discussion & Conclusion Due to the proliferation of Biometric systems, it is becoming an integral part of our society and our lives. However, with it, we are sacrificing our lives in terms of personal and privacy and with it we are replacing it with technologies for the purpose of national security. Based on studies, there are problems that exist within the biometric systems but, government and industry officials are persistently advocating that it guarantees security to individuals and US national security.Discussion & Conclusion: Discussion & Conclusion “Surveillance not only observes the physical body and ultimately the mind but has now actually penetrated the body.” (Wade, 2004)REFERENCE: REFERENCE Manivannan, Padma (2011) Comparative and Analysis of Biometric Systems. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering. Vol. 3 (5) O’Neil, Patrick H. (2005) Complexity and Counterterrorism: Thinking about Biometrics. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism . 28. doi: 10.1080/10576100591008962 Bewley-Taylor, David R. (2005). US Concept wars, civil liberties and the technologies of fortification. Crime, Law & Social Changes . 43. doi: 10.1007/s10611-005-4054-zREFERENCE: REFERENCE Wade, Lindsey (2004) Facing the Threat: Invading the Body for National Security. Knowledge, Technology & Policy . Vol. 17 (1) Woodward, John D. (2005). Using Biometrics to Achieve Dominance in the Global War on Terrorism. Military Review . Sept-Oct 2005 Zuriek, Elia. (2004) Governance, Security, and Technology: The Case of Biometrics. Studies in Political Economy. Vol. 73 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.